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  • Author: Cihan Kaçar x
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Clinical, Biochemical and Haemodynamic Effects of the Intrathecal Ketamine for Ovariohysterectomy in Bitches


The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of intrathecal (IT) ketamine HCl anesthesia on clinical values and some haemodynamic and biochemical parameters in bitches. An IT ketamine (10 mg/kg) was administered to 30 bitches with a spinal needle (18-22 G) in the lumbosacral space. The haemodynamic parameters were monitored and some biochemical values were assessed (blood gase, oxygen-haemoglobin, and electrolyte levels). The length and depth of anaesthesia was determined with a pinprick test, touching to the ligamenta lata uteri and incision. Anaesthesia took effect in less than 1 min in all dogs and has lasted an average of 95.9 min. In spite of the fact that the dogs recovered completely from the effects of dissociative anaesthesia, the anaesthesia in the some extremities was observed to be continued for an average of 17 min longer. The use of IT ketamine HCl raised blood pressure and did not have a depressive effect on respiratory and cardiac functions. It was concluded that ketamine HCl could be an appropriate alternative for ovariohysterectomy operations in bitches when the quality of the anaesthesia and the prevention of bradycardia and hypotension are considered.

Open access
Impact of prepartum body condition score loss on metabolic status during the transition period and subsequent fertility in Brown Swiss dairy cows



The objectives of this study were to determine the role of a fall in pre-calving body condition score (BCS) in postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes, and gauge the indicativeness of blood metabolites during the transition period.

Material and Methods

Cows were grouped based on BCS loss between days −14 ±3 and 0 relative to calving. Cows that lost no BCS were the BCS control group (BCS-C), cows that lost 0.25 BCS points the low BCS loss group (BCS-L), and those that lost 0.5 points or more the high BCS loss (BCS-H) group. Blood was taken on days −14 ±3, 3, 14, and 30 ±4 for determination of comprehensive metabolic panel biomarker levels. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) levels were quantified on postpartum examination days. Vaginal discharge scores, ovarian activity on day 30 ±4, and subsequent fertility parameters were evaluated.


The BCS-H cows had lower mean Ca concentrations before calving and on day 3, when the group’s BHBA and CK were higher (P < 0.05); on day 14 they had higher AST concentrations (P < 0.05). The BCS-L cows had greater bilirubin levels (P < 0.05). The BCS-H cows had lower cyclicity and higher endometritis rates. First service pregnancy rates were 50%, 50%, and 61.9%, open days 96.8, 95.75, and 89.2, and overall pregnancy rates 56.25%, 65%, and 80.95 % in the BCS-H, BCS-L, and BCS-C groups, respectively.


Prepartum BCS loss of ≥ 0.5 points could be associated with Brown Swiss cow low Ca and BHBA concentrations early postpartum, and with subsequent uterine health and overall pregnancy rate. Prepartum Ca concentration might be a prognostic biomarker for postpartum metabolic status and reproductive outcomes.

Open access