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Open access

Sopon Pornkunwilai, Wichit Nosoongnoen, Chutima Jantarat, Suttipong Wachrasindhu and Vichit Supornsilchai

Abstract

Background

Bisphenol A (BPA), a xenoestrogenic monomer, is one of the most common industrial chemicals used in epoxy coatings for canned food and other consumer items. There is only limited information regarding the potential health risks from BPA exposure in children and adolescents from Asian countries.

Objective

To detect and determine urinary BPA concentrations, and identify possible association between urinary BPA levels, demographic characteristics, and BPA exposure risks in Thai children and adolescents.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 376 children and adolescents aged 3–18 years from kindergarten, elementary, and middle schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Urinary concentrations of total BPA were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MSMS). Anthropometric data and questionnaires regarding BPA exposure risks were collected.

Results

BPA was detected in 283 of 376 urine samples (75.3%) with a median adjusted BPA 0.53 μg/g creatinine (range 0.04–1.12). Thirty-one participants (9%) were overweight and 39 (11%) were obese. The BPA detection rate was significantly higher in obese children (OR 3.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18–9.95, P = 0.02) compared with children of normal weight. BPA was detected more often in younger children (3-6 years) when compared with children (6–10 years) and adolescents (10–18 years). There were no significant association between BPA levels and other demographic data or BPA exposure risks.

Conclusions

BPA exposure in Thai children and adolescents may be lower than exposure in children from the United States, some European nations, and other Asian countries. Obese and younger children were significantly associated with BPA detection.

Open access

Nuttanun Sedtasiriphokin, Vichit Supornsilchai, Chutima Jantarat and Wichit Nosoongnoen

Abstract

Background

Phthalates are found in products made of plastic. Because of concerns regarding the hazards of phthalate exposure, including endocrine disruption, many countries have regulations to restrict their use in products used by children. However, in Thailand, no such restrictions exist, and data relating to phthalate exposure are scarce.

Objectives

To determine the level of exposure of Thai children and adolescents to phthalates, and study its associations with sociodemographic data and the exposure to potential sources of phthalates.

Methods

Healthy children aged 2–18 y were enrolled into the present cross-sectional study between January 2016 and December 2016 inclusive. Their anthropometric indices and Tanner staging were determined. Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites, monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), were determined in spot samples by high-performance liquid chromatography to estimate the level of phthalate exposure. Associations between sociodemographic data, exposure to potential sources of phthalates, and phthalate metabolite concentrations were analyzed.

Results

We included 103 boys and 118 girls with a mean age of 9.4 ± 3.64 (range 2.8–17.1) y and detected MMP in 28.5% and MBP in 88.6%. The geometric means (interquartile range) of urinary MMP and MBP were 3400 (2489, 4642) and 214.4 (164, 279) μg/g creatinine (Cr), respectively. Significant associations were found between exposure to floor cleaning products and Cr-adjusted urinary MMP level (P < 0.05), and paint and Cr-adjusted urinary MMP and MBP levels (P < 0.05). Prepuberty was significantly associated with urinary Cr-adjusted MMP level.

Conclusion

Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were high in a proportion of Thai children and adolescents. Exposure to floor cleaning products and paint is associated with phthalate exposure, and advanced Tanner stage is negatively associated with urinary Cr-adjusted MBP.