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  • Author: Chun-yan Zhang x
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Open access

Pei-yan Zhang, Si-min Yao, Fan Zhang, Ming-xia Zhang, Wei Li, Jing Yuan, Xin-chun Chen and Bo-ping Zhou


Objective Various immune cells in patients with CHB have been demonstrated to play critical roles in HBV infection. The goal of this study is to observe changes in Th17, Treg, Th1 and B lymphocytes from peripheral blood and to evaluate immune status of CHB patients undergoing antiviral treatment.

Methods Total of 49 CHB patients, 19 asymptomatic carriers and 29 healthy donors were included in our present study. The frequencies of peripheral Th17 cells (CD3+CD4+IL-17+Tcells), Treg cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127- T cells), Th1 cells (CD3+CD4+IFN-γ T cells) and B lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were analyzed by flow cytometry.

Results The frequency of Th17 cells increased after treatment for 6 months, but there was no statistically significant difference of IL-17 expression between baseline and 6 months after treatment. The frequencies of Treg cells, momory B cells and total CD19+ B cells decreased after antiviral treatment. The frequencies of Th1 cells and plasma cells increased after antiviral treatment.

Conclusions This study highlights that the reestablishment of immune function during antiviral treatment in CHB patients, which caused by the antiviral drugs or the patients themselves. CHB patients may exhibit varied responses to these antiviral drugs. It is essential to supplement immune therapy during the antiviral treatment, but Th17 may play a limited role in inflammation during antiviral treatment, targeting Th17 therapy may not be useful for CHB treatment. More time and more experiments are critical to explain it.

Open access

Xiao-Hong Zhang, Li-Na Meng, Hui-Hui Liu, Ru-Zhen Luo, Chun-Mei Zhang, Pei-Pei Zhang and Yan-Hui Liu



Problem-solving should be a fundamental component of nursing education because it is a core ability for professional nurses. For more effective learning, nursing students must understand the relationship between self-directed learning readiness and problem-solving ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-directed learning readiness, problem-solving ability, and academic self-efficacy among undergraduate nursing students.


From November to December 2016, research was conducted among 500 nursing undergraduate students in Tianjin, China, using a self-directed learning readiness scale, an academic self-efficacy scale, a questionnaire related to problem-solving, and self-designed demographics. The response rate was 85.8%.


For Chinese nursing students, self-directed learning readiness and academic self-efficacy reached a medium-to-high level, while problem-solving abilities were at a low level. There were significant positive correlations among the students’ self-directed learning readiness, academic self-efficacy, and problem-solving ability. Furthermore, academic self-efficacy demonstrated a mediating effect on the relationship between the students’ self-directed learning readiness and problem-solving ability.


To enhance students’ problem-solving ability, nursing educators should pay more attention to the positive impact of self-directed learning readiness and self-efficacy in nursing students’ education.

Open access

Qi Lu, Chun-xia Zhao, Kun-ling Shen, Wen-bo Xu, Yan Zhang, Jia-lin Yu and Xi-qiang Yang


Objective Fusion protein is a subunit of the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and a potential vaccine candidate. Thus, a study on the genetic characteristics of F protein was considered important for further investigations in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of the F gene of HRSV infections in hospitalized pediatric patients in Beijing with acute lower respiratory tract infections and to compare the circulating genotypes that are currently found worldwide.

Methods HRSV particles were amplified by RT-PCR and the PCR products were purified for sequencing. Further analysis was carried out by Bioedit and MEGA 3.0 biological software programs.

Results Seventy-six samples (23.1%) were positive for HRSV. The percentage of cases in patients younger than 1 year was 84.21%. Among the six Beijing isolates, four belonged to subgroup A, whose respective F genes shared 97.0%-97.4% nucleotide sequence identity and 92.1%-93.0% amino acid sequence identity. The other two isolates belonged to subgroup B. Here, 97.3% and 98.2% sequence identity were found at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively.

Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed that those four isolates within subgroup A were monophyletic and closely related to each other, but those two within subgroup B distributed in two distinct clusters. Subgroup A and B strains co-circulated, indicating that two different transmission chains occurred in Beijing from 2003-2004.