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Open access

Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Hsin-Yuan Fang, Ji-An Liang, Su-Tso Yang, Chia-Chin Li and Chun-Ru Chien



Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a promising option for non-operated early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT). However, results from conclusive randomized controlled trials are not yet available. The aim of our study was to explore the effectiveness of SABR vs. CFRT for non-operated early-stage NSCLC.

Patients and methods

We used a comprehensive population-based database to identify clinical stage I non-operated NSCLC patients in Taiwan diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 who were treated with either SABR or CFRT. We used inverse probability weighting and the propensity score as the primary form of analysis to address the nonrandomization of treatment. In the supplementary analyses, we constructed subgroups based on propensity score matching to compare survival between patients treated with SABR vs. CFRT.


We identified 238 patients in our primary analysis. A good balance of covariates was achieved using the propensity score weighting. Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between those treated with SABR vs. CFRT (SABR vs. CFRT: probability weighting adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.586, 95% confidence interval 0.264–1.101, p = 0.102). However, SABR was significantly favored in supplementary analyses.


In this population-based propensity-score adjusted analysis, we found that OS was not significantly different between those treated with SABR vs. CFRT in the primary analysis, although significance was observed in the supplementary analyses. Our results should be interpreted with caution given the database (i.e., nonrandomized) approach used in our study. Overall, further studies are required to explore these issues.

Open access

Chun-Ru Liu, Gong-Ming Yin, Fang Fang, Pierre Voinchet, Cheng-Long Deng, Fei Han, Jian-Ping Li, Wei-Juan Song, Duo Wang and Jean-Jacques Bahain


The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China, provide important terrestrial archives about Palaeolithic settlements and, therefore, about early human occupation in high northern latitude in East Asia. Here we present detailed ESR dating of the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site, located in this basin. Four levels A, B, C and E of the Donggutuo archaeological layer yield ESR ages ranging from 1060±129 ka to 1171±132 ka with a mean of 1119±132 ka. The ages are consistent with the paleomagnetic data, which show that the Donggutuo Palaeolithic site lies just below the onset of the Jaramillo normal subchron (0.99–1.07 Ma). Furthermore, our results indicate that the reliable ESR dating range of bleached quartz using Ti-Li centre can be effectively extended to 1100 ka and the Ti-Li centre was zeroed before the last deposition, which requires improvement of the understanding of the bleaching mechanism conditions.

Open access

Fang-Chun Sun, Ya-Chung Jeng, Meng-Shiou Lee, Chen-Fan Wen, Tsung-Ming Chen and Meng-Shiunn Lee


Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) M1 and T1 polymorphisms in 184 patients with different stages of liver fibrosis and hepatitis C virus infection and 173 healthy control subjects.

Methods: DNA samples were extracted from whole blood, and the polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were determined with PCR using fluorescence-labeled Taq Man probes. Associations between specific genotypes and progression of liver fibrosis were examined by use of the logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Results show that no differences were found between the frequencies of GSTM1 (49.8% versus 50.2%) and GSTT1 (52.2% versus 47.8%) null genotypes in HCV-infected pa tients and healthy controls, respectively. In addition, there was also no significant relation between the frequency of GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene polymorphisms and fibrosis stage as classified by the METAVIR group.

Conclusions: The combined GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes showed an association between GSTM1 [-]/GSTT1 [- ] and progression of liver fibrosis.

Open access

Gui-lin Yang, Ying-xia Liu, Mu-tong Fang, Wei-long Liu, Xin-chun Chen, John Nunnari, Jing-jing Xie, Ming-feng Liao, Ming-xia Zhang, Guo-bao Li, Pei-ze Zhang, Yi Guan and Boping Zhou


Objective To explore whether age, disease severity, cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.

Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.

Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients (P < 0.01). The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells. Additionally, the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.

Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods, which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.