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  • Author: Chaweewan Bunnag x
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Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, Jitraporn Juntabenjapat, Torpong Thongngarm, Paraya Assanasen, Chaweewan Bunnag and Bandit Thinkhamrop



Allergy is a chronic inflammatory disease, which may affect the upper and lower airway in reversible airflow obstruction or asthma. Spirometry is a noninvasive way to assess lower airway function routinely and to detect reversible airflow obstruction.


To determine the prevalence of abnormal spirometry in Thai patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) who did not have lower airway symptoms.


Spirometry and bronchodilation testing were performed in AR patients.


We included 153 patients aged from 20 to 60 years who had AR (diagnosed by clinical data and positive skin prick test) and who fulfilled the study criteria. Twenty-three patients with AR (15%) showed decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) compared with normal values (FEV1 <80% of predicted value). Four patients with AR (3%) showed reversible airflow obstruction. Thirty-seven patients with AR (24%) showed decreased forced expiratory flow during 25-75 s (FEF25-75) compared with the reference value (FEF25-75 <80% of predicted value). The sensitization to both indoor and outdoor allergens was statistically and significantly associated with the decreased FEV1 (odds ratio (OR) = 7.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-55.91, P = 0.03). The duration of AR was more than 10 years significantly affected FEF25-75 (adjusted OR = 2.6; 95%CI = 1.01-6.72, P = 0.04).


Impaired lower airway function and reversible airflow obstruction in patients with AR are not uncommon. Spirometry should be performed to detect lower airway impairment early in patients with AR, especially those sensitized to indoor and outdoor allergens.

Open access

Bangon Pinkaew, Paraya Assanasen and Chaweewan Bunnag



Olfactory function can be assessed using quantitative or qualitative tests. The phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) olfactory threshold test is a useful quantitative test by which to detect olfactory thresholds and to classify them into normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia. Qualitative tests of olfaction include the smell discrimination and identification tests, which are helpful in diagnosing several neurological diseases.


To identify normal values of smell discrimination and identification scores as references for Thai adults.


We prospectively recruited 128 healthy participants with normosmia as measured by the PEA olfactory threshold test and tested them for smell discrimination and identification scores.


The participants included 64 men and 64 women with age ranging from 18 to 60 years and a mean age of 35.9 years. Median score (interquartile range) of smell discrimination was 16 (13.5-16.0) and mean score (± standard deviation) of smell identification was 8 ± 1.5. The ability of women to discriminate and identify smells was significantly better than that of men as shown by a lower olfactory threshold and higher discrimination and identification scores.


Our study provides normal values for smell discrimination and identification scores in Thai adults, which may be used as references in clinical practice and research. The ability to identify smells may be influenced by individual experience and cultural backgrounds.