Creativity is here construed as an activity taking place in phases over time, one everywhere imbued with the social, whether the creator does much of the work alone as in fiction writing or with others where the creation itself is collaborative such as jazz improvisation. This paper considers the creation of theatrical roles, a domain in which some phases of the activity take place under solitary conditions and others involve face-to-face interaction. Grounded in a research review, the paper examines the phases of the creative process in scripted acting. It notes the kinds of social relationships in each, the roles of intention, reflection and spontaneity, the forms of interaction in terms of Schütz’s multiple realities and the ways in which those realities interact.
This paper explores the place of teaching in the landscape of creativity. It draws on analyses of interview narratives from dedicated teachers from various educational levels and teaching contexts; none had been singled out as creative by their institutions. Asked when teaching had been experienced as a creative process, rather than describing specific incidents, the teachers told of projects and goals that spanned a semester or year. Daily activities contributed to the projects, making creativity in teaching everyday creativity in both the technical and literal senses. Interview protocols were analyzed into meaning units and categorized into themes. Some themes were similar to those in studies of creative teachers and teaching, though no prior study explicitly put forward all of them. The interviewed teachers described practices previously suggested for nurturing student creativity. Most themes echoed features found in creativity studies of various other domains. Two unique features were the double nature of intrinsic motivation and the nature of the creative “product.”