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Cezary Kabała

Streszczenie

Piąte wydanie Systematyki gleb Polski umacnia zasadę klasyfikacji gleb w oparciu o ilościowo zdefiniowane poziomy i właściwości diagnostyczne. Nowe kryteria klasyfikacji bazują na podziałach międzynarodowych, jednak jednoczesne stosowanie rozwiązań zaczerpniętych z FAO-WRB i US Soil Taxonomy albo niekonsekwentne stosowanie ustalonych definicji jest powodem wewnętrznej niespójności klasyfikacji. Dalsze doskonalenie systematyki gleb Polski powinno objąć: wybórjednego międzynarodowego systemu referencyjnego dla poziomów i właściwości diagnostycznych, ustalenie hierarchii priorytetów klasyfikacyjnych i klucza do klasyfikacji gleb, doprecyzowanie definicji unikalnych poziomów diagnostycznych, opracowanie uniwersalnych zasad wyróżniania podtypów oraz doprecyzowanie kryteriów ilościowych na styku j ednostek. Należy również podj ąć próbę zmniej -szenia liczby typów i podtypów gleb, co może ułatwić odbiór, zrozumienie oraz nauczanie systematyki.

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Cezary Kabała and Elżbieta Musztyfaga

Abstract

Soil with a clay-illuvial subsurface horizon are the most widespread soil type in Poland and significantly differ in morphology and properties developed under variable environmental conditions. Despite the long history of investigations, the rules of classification and cartography of clay-illuvial soils have been permanently discussed and modified. The distinction of clay-illuvial soils into three soil types, introduced to the Polish soil classification in 2011, has been criticized as excessively extended, non-coherent with the other parts and rules of the classification, hard to introduce in soil cartography and poorly correlated with the international soil classifications. One type of clay-illuvial soils (“gleby płowe”) was justified and recommended to reintroduce in soil classification in Poland, as well as 10 soil subtypes listed in a hierarchical order. The subtypes may be combined if the soil has diagnostic features of more than one soil subtypes. Clear rules of soil name generalization (reduction of subtype number for one soil) were suggested for soil cartography on various scales. One of the most important among the distinguished soil sub-types are the “eroded” or “truncated” clay-illuvial soils.

Open access

Beata Łabaz, Adam Bogacz and Cezary Kabała

Abstract

Large-scale river regulation, drainage and intense farming in the Barycz valley initiated in 17th century activated a transformation of the initial alluvial and swamp-alluvial soils. Soils on the Holocene flooded terraces have deep, acid humus horizons (umbric) and gleyic properties at shallow depth, but have no stratification of parent material to a depth of 100 cm. Despite the location in the floodplain, soils cannot be classified as black-earth alluvial soils (mady czarnoziemne) using the criteria of Polish soil classification (2011). The soils on the Pleistocene non-flooded terraces have a deep, base-saturated humus horizon (mollic) and gleyic properties in the lower part of soil profile, which allows to classify them as the black earths (czarne ziemie). Prominent stratification of the parent material well preserved in these soils has no influence on their classification (due to the age sediments). Almost all humus horizons of these soils meet the definition of anthric characteristics, and more than half of the studied soils can be classified as culturozemic soils - rigosols - which emphasises the important role of man in the transformation and gaining of morphological features of these soils. The lack of precise criteria for identifying soil types in the chernozemic order of the Polish soil classification (2011) causes difficulties in the classification of soils on the river terraces, in particular, in distinguishing between black-earth alluvial soils and black earths.

Open access

Leszek Szerszeń, Tadeusz Chodak and Cezary Kabała

Profesor Jan Borkowski 1923-2011

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Cezary Kabała, Marcin Świtoniak and Przemysław Charzyński

Abstract

The recent editions of the Polish Soil Classification (PSC) have supplied the correlation table with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), which is the international soil classification most commonly used by Polish pedologists. However, the latest WRB edition (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) has introduced significant changes and many of the former correlations became outdated. The current paper presents the closest equivalents of the soil orders, types and subtypes of the recent edition of the PSC (2011) and WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The proposals can be used for general correlation of soil units on maps and in databases, and may support Polish soil scientists to establish the most appropriate equivalents for soils under study, as well as make PSC more available for an international society.

Open access

Beata Labaz and Cezary Kabała

Streszczenie

Czarne ziemie, w randze osobnej j ednostki, wyodrębnione zostały przez Miklaszewskiego ze względu na ich poba-giennągenezę, podmokłość oraz specyficzny typ „kwaśnej” próchnicy. Z czasem zaczęto określać tym mianem także inne podmokłe gleby z głębokim poziomem próchnicznym o różnej genezie: (1) czarne ziemie pojeziorne (pobagienne), (2) czarne ziemie błotne (z przeobrażenia gleb torfowo- i torfiastoglej owych), (3) czarne ziemie deluwialne, (4) czarne ziemie ukształtowane w procesie werty-lizacji, (5) czarne ziemie powstałe w efekcie zwiększenia wilgotności czarnoziemów łąkowo-leśnych, (6) poligenetyczne czarne ziemie z poziomem iluwiacji iłu. Klasyfikacja gleb o tak zróżnicowanej genezie musi opierać się na wspólnych kryteriach morfologicznych, to j est zgodnie z trendem wyznaczonym przez systematyki gleb Polski z lat 1989 i 2011. Jednak przynależność do czarnych ziem nie zawsze jest jednoznaczna, ze względu na nieprecyzyjne rozgraniczenie w punktach stycznych z pokrewnymi glebami, w tym z czarnoziemami (intensywność oglejenia), madami i glebami deluwialnymi (stratyfikacja materiału macierzystego i/lub poziomu mollic), vertisolami (obecność poziomów mollic i vertic) oraz glebami murszastymi (brak różnic w kryteriach diagnostycznych). Ponadto, uzupełnienia wymagają charakterystyki czarnych ziem pod kątem rodzaju oglejenia (gruntowego oraz opadowego), rodzaju węglanów (wtórnych i pierwotnych) oraz obecności poziomu diagnostycznego anthric.

Open access

Elżbieta Musztyfaga and Cezary Kabała

Abstract

The paper focuses on Glossic Planosols (formerly Albeluvisols) with sandy topsoil widely represented in the northeastern part of Lower Silesia (SW Poland), in the range of tills from the Odra and Warta glaciations (Riss glaciation). The aim of the study was to characterize the texture of these soils in the context of the origin of parent materials and present-day pedogenic processes. Both the sedimentological and granulometric indexes, unbalances clay (and silt) fraction, and ventifact pavement at the contact of underlying loam and topsoil sandy layer confirm, that the textural differentiation of the topsoil and subsoil horizons has not resulted from the pedogenic processes, but primarily from the lithological discontinuity of glacial and post-glacial parent materials. Particle-size distribution and granulometric indexes of albeluvic tongues in the glossic horizon also confirm that the tongues has not been formed by eluviation of the fine fractions from the loamy material, but primarily by filling the initial thin crack with the sandy material. The coarser-textured tongues foster a deep infiltration and stagnation of water, and the development of reductic conditions allows further widening and deepening of the albeluvic tongues.

Open access

Marcin Świtoniak, Cezary Kabała and Przemysław Charzyński

Abstract

The article presents proposed English translations of all names of soil units (orders, types and subtypes) listed by Polish Soils Classification, PSC (2011). The proposal has been elaborated based on the recent Polish and foreign literature, using uniform and consistent criteria. Due to the lack of soil names translation in the recent, fifth edition of PSC, the suggested English nomenclature was basically derived from the previous, fourth edition of PSC (1989). However, significant amendment and numerous additions to the latest version were proposed. A uniform and comprehensive system of soil taxa translations may help to avoid nomenclature chaos in the English papers of Polish authors, which intentionally base or refer to PSC.

Open access

Cezary Kabała, Jarosław Waroszewski, Adam Bogacz and Beata Łabaz

O Specyfice Bielic Górskich

Open access

Anna Karczewska and Cezary KabałA

Abstract

This paper discusses new regulations on the assessment of soil contamination and the principle rules for remediation of contaminated sites included in the Environmental Protection Act, amended in 2014., as well as in related implementing legislation of 2016. In place of soil quality standards and the requirement to bring soil to the state that meets the standards, the new rules of contamination assessment and new remediation criteria have been introduced, based on environmental risk assessment. Similar rules are becoming increasingly common in many countries. This article provides general knowledge on the principles for the assessment of environmental risks associated with soil contamination, taking into account its two fundamental aspects: human health risk and environmental risk. On this background, the paper presents the principles of the assessment on soil contamination contained in the Regulation 1395 (2016) of the Minister of the Environment, as well as the rules for the choice of remediation method and design of remedial actions that should be basically aimed to eliminate the risk to human health and the environment.