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Cezary Kabała

Abstract

Following the other pedological societies, the Soil Science Society of Poland has launched a programme „Soil of the Year”, and Rędzina (Rendzina) was selected as the soil inaugurating the programme in 2018. Polish term „rędzina” was internationally popularized by Stanisław Miklaszewski in the second/third decade of 20th century and is present in the most soil classification systems as „Rendzina”, „Rendoll”, or „Rendzic” until now. In the Polish tradition, the rendzinas are soils developed from massive rocks rich in calcite, dolomite or gypsum, quite often with admixtures of glacial/periglacial materials, at all development stages. Contemporary classifications of soils in Poland distinguish four main groups (as the types or sub-types): raw rendzina – Calcaric Lithic / Hyperskeletic Leptosols (a minimal thickness of regolith and an initial development of genetic horizons), proper rendzina – Calcaric Leptosols (medium thick profile, but diagnostic horizons are absent), brown rendzina – Calcaric Skeletic Cambisols (have a diagnostic cambic horizon), and chernozemic/humic rendzina – Rendzic Skeletic Phaeozems (have a diagnostic mollic horizon). Rendzina soils are featured by high content of calcium/magnesium, neutral and alkaline reaction, and high base saturation throughout the soil profile, but the individual soil subtypes differ significantly in their usability for agriculture and forestry, depending on the thickness of the soil profile (i.e. a depth to the hard rock or extremely skeletal subsoil), stoniness, texture, and humus content.

Open access

Cezary Kabała

Streszczenie

Piąte wydanie Systematyki gleb Polski umacnia zasadę klasyfikacji gleb w oparciu o ilościowo zdefiniowane poziomy i właściwości diagnostyczne. Nowe kryteria klasyfikacji bazują na podziałach międzynarodowych, jednak jednoczesne stosowanie rozwiązań zaczerpniętych z FAO-WRB i US Soil Taxonomy albo niekonsekwentne stosowanie ustalonych definicji jest powodem wewnętrznej niespójności klasyfikacji. Dalsze doskonalenie systematyki gleb Polski powinno objąć: wybórjednego międzynarodowego systemu referencyjnego dla poziomów i właściwości diagnostycznych, ustalenie hierarchii priorytetów klasyfikacyjnych i klucza do klasyfikacji gleb, doprecyzowanie definicji unikalnych poziomów diagnostycznych, opracowanie uniwersalnych zasad wyróżniania podtypów oraz doprecyzowanie kryteriów ilościowych na styku j ednostek. Należy również podj ąć próbę zmniej -szenia liczby typów i podtypów gleb, co może ułatwić odbiór, zrozumienie oraz nauczanie systematyki.

Open access

Cezary Kabała and Elżbieta Musztyfaga

Abstract

Soil with a clay-illuvial subsurface horizon are the most widespread soil type in Poland and significantly differ in morphology and properties developed under variable environmental conditions. Despite the long history of investigations, the rules of classification and cartography of clay-illuvial soils have been permanently discussed and modified. The distinction of clay-illuvial soils into three soil types, introduced to the Polish soil classification in 2011, has been criticized as excessively extended, non-coherent with the other parts and rules of the classification, hard to introduce in soil cartography and poorly correlated with the international soil classifications. One type of clay-illuvial soils (“gleby płowe”) was justified and recommended to reintroduce in soil classification in Poland, as well as 10 soil subtypes listed in a hierarchical order. The subtypes may be combined if the soil has diagnostic features of more than one soil subtypes. Clear rules of soil name generalization (reduction of subtype number for one soil) were suggested for soil cartography on various scales. One of the most important among the distinguished soil sub-types are the “eroded” or “truncated” clay-illuvial soils.

Open access

Beata Łabaz, Adam Bogacz and Cezary Kabała

Abstract

Large-scale river regulation, drainage and intense farming in the Barycz valley initiated in 17th century activated a transformation of the initial alluvial and swamp-alluvial soils. Soils on the Holocene flooded terraces have deep, acid humus horizons (umbric) and gleyic properties at shallow depth, but have no stratification of parent material to a depth of 100 cm. Despite the location in the floodplain, soils cannot be classified as black-earth alluvial soils (mady czarnoziemne) using the criteria of Polish soil classification (2011). The soils on the Pleistocene non-flooded terraces have a deep, base-saturated humus horizon (mollic) and gleyic properties in the lower part of soil profile, which allows to classify them as the black earths (czarne ziemie). Prominent stratification of the parent material well preserved in these soils has no influence on their classification (due to the age sediments). Almost all humus horizons of these soils meet the definition of anthric characteristics, and more than half of the studied soils can be classified as culturozemic soils - rigosols - which emphasises the important role of man in the transformation and gaining of morphological features of these soils. The lack of precise criteria for identifying soil types in the chernozemic order of the Polish soil classification (2011) causes difficulties in the classification of soils on the river terraces, in particular, in distinguishing between black-earth alluvial soils and black earths.

Open access

Leszek Szerszeń, Tadeusz Chodak and Cezary Kabała

Profesor Jan Borkowski 1923-2011

Open access

Cezary Kabała, Marcin Świtoniak and Przemysław Charzyński

Abstract

The recent editions of the Polish Soil Classification (PSC) have supplied the correlation table with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), which is the international soil classification most commonly used by Polish pedologists. However, the latest WRB edition (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) has introduced significant changes and many of the former correlations became outdated. The current paper presents the closest equivalents of the soil orders, types and subtypes of the recent edition of the PSC (2011) and WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The proposals can be used for general correlation of soil units on maps and in databases, and may support Polish soil scientists to establish the most appropriate equivalents for soils under study, as well as make PSC more available for an international society.

Open access

Elżbieta Musztyfaga and Cezary Kabała

Abstract

The paper focuses on Glossic Planosols (formerly Albeluvisols) with sandy topsoil widely represented in the northeastern part of Lower Silesia (SW Poland), in the range of tills from the Odra and Warta glaciations (Riss glaciation). The aim of the study was to characterize the texture of these soils in the context of the origin of parent materials and present-day pedogenic processes. Both the sedimentological and granulometric indexes, unbalances clay (and silt) fraction, and ventifact pavement at the contact of underlying loam and topsoil sandy layer confirm, that the textural differentiation of the topsoil and subsoil horizons has not resulted from the pedogenic processes, but primarily from the lithological discontinuity of glacial and post-glacial parent materials. Particle-size distribution and granulometric indexes of albeluvic tongues in the glossic horizon also confirm that the tongues has not been formed by eluviation of the fine fractions from the loamy material, but primarily by filling the initial thin crack with the sandy material. The coarser-textured tongues foster a deep infiltration and stagnation of water, and the development of reductic conditions allows further widening and deepening of the albeluvic tongues.

Open access

Cezary Kabała, Jarosław Waroszewski, Adam Bogacz and Beata Łabaz

O Specyfice Bielic Górskich

Open access

Bożena Smreczak, Jan Jadczyszyn and Cezary Kabała

Abstract

The agricultural value of rendzina soils depends on many factors, including type of parent rock, texture of arable layer, admixture of post-glacial materials and occurrence of coarse fragments. Over 97% of rendzinas in Poland are arable soils, and less than 3% are under permanent meadows and permanent pastures. Rendzinas are soil of high production potential for agriculture. Almost 75% of them were included in the wheat complexes (from 1 to 3) while about 10% are weak and very weak rye soils (complex 6 and 7) in Polish land suitability system. Groups of rendzinas identified for agricultural purposes and the principles of their identification were established on 1950s and 1960s when bonitation maps and soil-agricultural maps were prepared. These principles have not changed so far, therefore the purpose of the work was to describe the divisions of these soils and the characteristics of their properties on the example of arable soils based on the available data.

Open access

Beata Labaz and Cezary Kabała

Streszczenie

Czarne ziemie, w randze osobnej j ednostki, wyodrębnione zostały przez Miklaszewskiego ze względu na ich poba-giennągenezę, podmokłość oraz specyficzny typ „kwaśnej” próchnicy. Z czasem zaczęto określać tym mianem także inne podmokłe gleby z głębokim poziomem próchnicznym o różnej genezie: (1) czarne ziemie pojeziorne (pobagienne), (2) czarne ziemie błotne (z przeobrażenia gleb torfowo- i torfiastoglej owych), (3) czarne ziemie deluwialne, (4) czarne ziemie ukształtowane w procesie werty-lizacji, (5) czarne ziemie powstałe w efekcie zwiększenia wilgotności czarnoziemów łąkowo-leśnych, (6) poligenetyczne czarne ziemie z poziomem iluwiacji iłu. Klasyfikacja gleb o tak zróżnicowanej genezie musi opierać się na wspólnych kryteriach morfologicznych, to j est zgodnie z trendem wyznaczonym przez systematyki gleb Polski z lat 1989 i 2011. Jednak przynależność do czarnych ziem nie zawsze jest jednoznaczna, ze względu na nieprecyzyjne rozgraniczenie w punktach stycznych z pokrewnymi glebami, w tym z czarnoziemami (intensywność oglejenia), madami i glebami deluwialnymi (stratyfikacja materiału macierzystego i/lub poziomu mollic), vertisolami (obecność poziomów mollic i vertic) oraz glebami murszastymi (brak różnic w kryteriach diagnostycznych). Ponadto, uzupełnienia wymagają charakterystyki czarnych ziem pod kątem rodzaju oglejenia (gruntowego oraz opadowego), rodzaju węglanów (wtórnych i pierwotnych) oraz obecności poziomu diagnostycznego anthric.