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A. Tascu, A. Spatariu, C. Pascal and St.M. Iencean

Abstract

Infratentorial subdural empyema is a life-threatening condition, the common source being an ear infection. We present a 2-year old boy treated for bilateral mastoiditis, with infratentorial-left cerebellopontine angle subdural empyema. Clinical presentation encompassed a systemic febrile illness, headaches, and a stiff neck. Empyema was diagnosed with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was successfully treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Empyema should be considered in patients with ENT infection associated with neurological signs that suggest a posterior fossa lesion.

Open access

A. Tascu, C. Pascal, S.M. Florea and St.M. Iencean

Abstract

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are lesions thought to be primarily congenital in origin, consisting of fistulous connections of abnormal arteries and veins, without normal intervening capillary beds and no cerebral parenchyma between vessels. In the pediatric population, AVMs represent the most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), with a high recurrent bleeding risk. The aim of this paper is to report 2 cases of ruptured lobar AVMs in children, presenting with spontaneous ICH. Due to the patients’ neurological status, the only imaging examination performed preoperatively was a CT scan, showing intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Thus, there was no MRI/angiographic examination to prove the existence of a brain AVM prior to the surgical interventions. Also, the cerebral angiography performed after the surgery showed, in both patients, no signs of residual vascular malformations. Therefore, the diagnosis of AVM was certified by macroscopic and microscopic pathological findings, with no brain imaging suggestive of a vascular malformation.

Open access

A. Tascu, C. Pascal, St.M. Iencean and M.R. Gorgan

Abstract

epidural hematomas (EDH) in children appear as a consequence of head trauma. Although emergency surgical intervention was the classical neurosurgical treatment for EDH, lately there has been observed a tendency to replace operation by conservative management, whenever the neurological status and imaging appearance allows it. The aim of this article is to present our experience in treating EDH in children 0-3 years old and to establish a management protocol for EDH in infants, by evaluating the clinical and neuroimaging status, of both surgically and conservatively treated patients, from hospital admission to discharge. Retrospective study includes 52 patients diagnosed with an extradural hematoma, admitted in the First Neurosurgery Department of the Clinical Hospital ‘Bagdasar-Arseni’ in Bucharest, from January 2004 to December 2013. The patients were identified by diagnosis from the clinic’s database; clinical and imaging data was extracted from the patient’s individual records and crosschecked with the operating protocols. Cerebral CT scan was the preferred imaging investigation for diagnosis. Our study includes 52 patients (26 boys and 26 girls), with a mean age of 14.5 months (range 6 weeks - 3 years old). 25 patients were surgically treated, while the other 27 received symptomatic medication and were monitored clinically and by imaging exams. The most frequent clinical manifestations were intracranial hypertension (21 patients) and psychomotor agitation (19 patients). The traumatic mechanisms were: accidental falling (38 patients), blunt head trauma (3 patients), road accident (2 patients), unspecified (8 patients) other causes (1 patient). Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale classification of TBI, 39 patients suffered a mild TBI, 7 a moderate TBI and 6 patients suffered a severe TBI. Most of the patients had a good recovery; there was a total of two deaths. The most common location for the EDHs was parietal (20 patients) and temporal-parietal (11 patients). Both surgical treatment and conservative management of EDH have a good clinical outcome. Clinical and neuroimaging evaluation at admission/reevaluation plays an imperative role in deciding the appropriate therapeutic attitude for each patient.

Open access

A. Tascu, R.E. Rizea, C. Pascal, A. Iliescu, A. Spatariu and A. Gheorghita

Open access

A. Tascu, Fl. Exergian, S. Daniel, A. Iliescu, C. Pascal, G. Popescu and St.M. Iencean

Abstract

Traumatic spine injuries in pediatric patients have a low incidence, mainly due to a more flexible spine and is a specific matter in comparison to spinal injury in adults. Pediatric spine fractures constitute 1 to 3% of all pediatric fractures. Between 20 % and 60% of the fractures occur in the lumbar and thoracic spine. These spine injury appeared most frequently in sport events, followed by traffic events and accidental falling. The vast majority of the children with spinal trauma had grade D and E lesions on Frankel scale and had a good recovery in 1 to 3 months after the event. Prognosis and outcome is better in children with spine trauma, reducing toward adolescence and in young adults and the death rate was extremely low compared to the adult population

Open access

Mario C. Lopez-Loces, Jedrzej Musial, Johnatan E. Pecero, Hector J. Fraire-Huacuja, Jacek Blazewicz and Pascal Bouvry

Abstract

Internet shopping has been one of the most common online activities, carried out by millions of users every day. As the number of available offers grows, the difficulty in getting the best one among all the shops increases as well. In this paper we propose an integer linear programming (ILP) model and two heuristic solutions, the MinMin algorithm and the cellular processing algorithm, to tackle the Internet shopping optimization problem with delivery costs. The obtained results improve those achieved by the state-of-the-art heuristics, and for small real case scenarios ILP delivers exact solutions in a reasonable amount of time.