Marlena Pascu, Ruxandra Miulescu and C. Ionescu-Tîrgoviste
Fetal Macrosomia in the Diabetic Woman
Diabetes mellitus complicates up to 10% of pregnancies, while in Romania the incidence is this under 5%. In most of the cases we are talking about gestational diabetes, while only in 0.1 - 0.3% of the cases, the diabetes was pregestational (mainly Type 1 diabetes and rarely Type 2 diabetes or Mody). The study we conducted concerned the incidence of macrosomia in the general population; in the study we investigated 3,000 pregnant patients who gave birth in the Unit of Obstetrics & Gynecology of ‘Dr Cantacuzino’ Hospital from 13th January 2007 to 30th March 2010. The 7.1% of incidence of diabetes mellitus highlighted by the study which aimed to trace gestational diabetes conducted in 2007-2010 period with the assistance of the ‘Dr Cantacuzino’ Hospital, represents just the tip of the iceberg. The positive diagnosis of gestational diabetes identified not only women who had diabetes mellitus pre-existing the pregnancy, without their being aware of it, but also women with a pathology of carbohydrate metabolism who will in the future run a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The aberrant right subclavian artery or the aberrant right subclavian artery syndrome is a rare anatomical variant of the right subclavian artery origin but it is the most common form of congenital anomaly of the aortic arch. The normal or abnormal appearance of the aortic arch can be explained by the regression or the persistence of one or other of the two embryonic aortic arches. The regression of the right aortic arch after the origin of the right subclavian artery will result in a normal aspect of left aortic arch with normal vascular anatomy. While the right ductus arteriosus is regressing, the left one persists. This anomaly is apparently found in the general population in approximately 0.5-1.4% of the cases and in approximately 3% of cases with congenital heart malformations. The present review is focus on the prevalence of aberrant right subclavian artery in Down syndrome. Until present it is known that ultrasound evaluation in the screening programs for Down syndrome is of uncertain value and studies on larger number of cases are reconsidered. In addition we suggest that the echocardiographic examination in the first and second trimesters should be included as a first step of the diagnosis in such congenital anomalies.
L. Dobre, C. Vreme, A. Chirițoiu, G.I. Dorobanțu, N.S. Ionescu and C. Vlad
Introduction. Congenital fibrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, distal extremities being more commonly involved. This tumor has a rapid growth and extensive local invasion, but metastasis is rare. It is usually observed in children younger than two years old and is present at birth in up to 30% of the cases. Purpose. Evaluation of the methods of diagnosis and treatment in a case of a newborn known from intrauterine life, with a large tumor of the right arm. Materials and methods. We present the case of a 1-day-old patient, who was transferred from maternity in our clinics with the following diagnostics: large tumor of the right thoracic member, cardiac insufficiency, prematurity, severe respiratory distress. The tumor was visible at ultrasonography from intrauterine life, and the evolution was the increase in volume with necrosis areas and hair presence on its surface. After imagistic investigation, taking into account the tumoral extension with neurovascular involvement, without the possibility of a tumoral resection, but also the imminent danger of spontaneous rupture, we decided to perform a shoulder disarticulation without a biopsy in advance. Results. Postoperative evolution and the treatment of the cardiac insufficiency were good under antibiotics. The histopathological results advocate for the diagnosis of congenital fibrosarcoma, also confirmed by immunohistochemical tests. Conclusions. Soft tissue tumors are very rare and they need a multidisciplinary evaluation for the establishment of the right treatment. Imagistic and laboratory investigations can guide the diagnosis and the therapeutical conduct. The certainty diagnosis is established only after the histopathological results.
Vărgău M., Iliescu D.M., Dina C., Ionescu C. and Bordei P.
Duplication of the ureters is a common anomaly and is frequently encountered by radiologists. Duplication may be either complete or incomplete and is often accompanied by various complications. Incomplete duplication is most often associated with ureteroureteral reflux or ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the lower pole of the kidney. Complete duplication is most often associated with vesicoureteral reflux, ectopic ureterocele, or ectopic ureteral insertion, all of which are more common in girls than in boys. Vesicoureteral reflux affects the lower pole
The purpose of the study is to compare the outcomes of surgical interventions for acute appendicitis with the values of the Alvarado score. We conducted the study on 572 patients that underwent surgical interventions for acute appendicitis. Retrospectively, based on the medical records, we calculated the MANTRELS score and compared the outcomes of the intervention with the values of the applied score. Almost one third of the patients with a MANTRELS score lower than 6 had negative appendectomies. These patients represent 60% of the total cases of negative appendectomies, while in the case of patients with a high score around 2% had negative appendectomies. We concluded that using this scoring system to assess the need of immediate surgical intervention is important and can increase the rate of positive diagnosis mainly by limiting the number of unnecessary interventions.
N. Dogotari, Eva Gudumac, C. Tica, V. Eremia, C. Ionescu and S. Babuci
The authors present a clinical case that aims to elucidate the diagnostic tactics and the efficiency of the chystostomy procedure performed in children with complicated endobronchial lung hydatid cyst and the potential serious postoperative complications that may occur in the case of this non-capitonary residual cavity technique after pulmonary echinococectomy.
Faced with the clinical, surgical and morphopathological investigations of the endobronchus ruptured lung hydatid cyst, the authors conclude that the spectra of morphological pathogenesis present in these cases are responsible for the development of persistent aerostatic disorder, resulting in a long-term postoperative morbidity, which confirms the need to optimize the methods of surgical correction of postechinococectomial residual cavities.
Mesenteric cysts represent rare diseases of the abdominal cavity. The low incidence and the nonspecific clinical manifestations lead to a difficult diagnosis. Most of the time, these are diagnosed in advanced stages when complications arise or by chance following routine imagistic investigations. The ideal treatment for mesenteric cysts is the total surgical removal. The prognostic is favorable in most of the cases.
The diameter at the origin of the internal iliac vein was found between 4.7 to 9.9 mm; for the right internal iliac vein between 4.7 to 9.7 mm; the statistical distribution groups value in ascending order being as follows: 4.7 to 5.5 mm: 4 cases (22.22% of cases); 6.9 to 7.8 mm: 6 cases (33.33% of cases); 8.4-8.8 mm: 4 cases (22.22% of cases); 9.1 to 9.7 mm: 4 cases (22.22% of cases). The diameter at the origin of the left internal iliac vein was between 4.8 to 9.9 mm, while the distribution statistics on groups of values, in ascending order, being as follows: 4.8-5.2 mm: 4 cases (22.22 % of cases); 6.8-7.1 mm: 8 cases (44.44% of cases); 8.3 to 9.9 mm: 6 cases (33.33% of cases). The diameter at the end of the internal iliac vein was between 5.9 to 10.2 mm; the diameter at the end of the right internal iliac vein was between 6.1 to 10.2 mm, the statistical distribution of values groups in ascending order being follows: 6.1 to 7.5 mm: 6 cases (33.33% of cases); 8.4 to 8.7 mm: 8 cases (44.44% of cases); 9.3 to 10.2 mm: 4 cases (22.22% of cases). The diameter at the end of the left internal iliac vein was between 5.9 to 9.9 mm, while the distribution statistics on groups of values in ascending order being as follows: 5.9 to 6.2 mm: 4 cases (22.22 % of cases); 7 to 7.6 mm: 3 cases (16.67% of cases); 8.3-8.4 mm: 5 cases (27.28% of cases); 9.1 to 9.9 mm: 6 cases (33.33% of cases). Comparing the common iliac vein caliber of the two, right and left, we found that in 10 cases (55.56% of cases), the right internal iliac vein has a greater diameter than the left one by 0.3 mm. In 8 cases (44.44% of cases), the left internal iliac vein has a larger diameter than the right one with 0.1-0.6 mm; between the two values there is a difference of 0.5 mm
The origin of the internal iliac artery, right and left, was studied in 76 cases, 58 cases of male (76.32% of all cases) and 18 female cases (23.68% of all cases). The origin of the internal iliac arteries was considered in relation to the spine (lumbar-sacral). The right internal iliac artery males originates in a range from the upper edge of L4 vertebra - the lower part of fin sacral. It is found that in males, in most cases, 43 cases (74.14% of male cases), right internal iliac artery originates at different levels of sacral fin. We considered that the right iliac artery low origin only the cases in the lower part of the fin sacral, 10 cases (17.24% of male cases). Cases of high origin of the artery, above the fin sacral we found it in 15 cases (25.86% of male cases). From high origins, in the upper edge of the L4 vertebra and intervertebral disc at L4-L5, I met only one single case. Right internal iliac artery in females originated in a range between the upper edges of L5 - the lower part of sacral fin. In females, the right internal iliac artery origin, is located within narrower than in men, but in women, most frequently, 14 cases (77.78% of female the cases) was the origin of the internal iliac located at different levels of sacral fin. The females have not met internal iliac origin above the L5 vertebra or intervertebral disc level L4-L5. High origin was met it in 4 cases (22.22% of female the cases) and low origin in 6 cases (33.33% of female the cases). The level of the left internal iliac artery origin we studied 78 cases, finding it in the same range as in males, i.e., the upper edge of L4 vertebra - the front of the sacrum. In males, on a number of 57 cases (73.08% of all cases) the origin of the left internal iliac artery was made between the upper edge of the vertebra L4 - the front face of the sacrum, most commonly, in 44 cases (77 19% of male the cases) located in the sacral fin. The artery high origin I found it in 9 cases (15.79% of male the cases) and low origin in 18 cases (31.58% of male the cases). I have not met artery origin at L5-S1 intervertebral disc. In terms of low origin, only in males, the left internal iliac artery originated from the anterior to the sacrum, something not found the right internal iliac artery.
In females, the 18 cases followed, had their origins in the range lower half of the L5 - middle sacral fin, 17 cases (94.44% of female the cases), terminating at the sacral fin. It is found that in women the origin of the left internal iliac artery is within narrower than the other cases described so far, showing the highest level of origin, this artery in females do not possess low origin. The high origin is present in a small percentage, only 5.56% of cases, encountering any case the origin of the left internal iliac artery is located at the L4 vertebra or the intervertebral discs at L4-L5 or L5-S1. Internal iliac artery diameter was followed on 90 cases, 44 cases for the right internal iliac artery and 46 cases for left internal iliac artery. In males, the right internal iliac artery I found a caliber between 3 to 9.8 mm. In women the right internal iliac artery caliber found between 3.9 to 6.9 mm.