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  • Author: Burcu Acar x
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Measuring Students’ Knowledge Level of Life Insurance: A Case on the Students of the Department of Insurance and Risk Management at the Dumlupinar University, Turkey


Life insurance is a type of insurance that protects individuals or their relatives who are left behind after death or permanent injury. Although it is quite different from the diversity in the world, life insurance in Turkey, which also allows accumulation with providing death benefit, contribute to the tendency of people to save money. One of the reasons for slower development in life insurances in Turkey compared to the countries in the world stems from the education in the field of insurance. Indicators such as insufficient number of institutes and experts in the field and low ratio of insurance literacy are the outcomes of this inadequate education system. Hence, lack of education is directly connected with the level of students’ knowledge. The aim of this study, in which a cross-tabulated survey is used, is to measure the undergraduates’ knowledge level of basics of life insurance at the department of Insurance and Risk Management in Dumlupinar University. Results show that students who are taking education at the Dumlupinar University at the department of Insurance and Risk Management, have very low knowledge about basic life insurance. This study is important in determining the knowledge level of the students who will be in the insurance sector in the future and who will have an individual relationship with the customers.

Open access
Association of serum paraoxonase 1 activities, polymorphisms and oxidative stress in breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus



The aim of the study was to investigate the association of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphism, PON1/arylesterase (ARE) activity and oxidative stress index (OSI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with type 2 diabetes (DM).


Our study group consisted of 30 healthy women (HV group) and 66 female BC patients. The BC patients were divided into two groups: those with (n=37) and without DM (n=29) (BDM and NBDM group). Genotyping of PON1 Q192R and L55M polymorphisms were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Serum PON1/ARE enzyme activities, total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were analysed by spectrophotometric method. The ratio of TOS to TAS was accepted as the oxidative stress index (OSI).


PON1 Q192R genotype frequency distribution was significantly different in the BDM group compared to the NBDM group (p=0.021). When alleles distribution was examined, R and L alleles were significantly lower, Q and M alleles were significantly higher in the BDM group than in the NBDM group (p<0.001). TOS and OSI were statistically higher in BC patients than HV group (p<0.001).


Our results suggest that PON1 gene Q and M alleles may be the risk factors predisposing formation of BC due to increased oxidant damage seen in DM. However, these statements require further confirmation with screening PON1 polymorphism in a greater number of patients with DM, and also wide range follow-up studies are necessary for the same purpose.

Open access