The aim of this paper is to give an overview of novel swine non-foodborne zoonotic diseases that have been prominent in the last decade in swine industry. The number of swine present worldwide and the large percentage of population that consume pork, swine represent significant reservoir of potential zoonoses. Numerous of human cases of swine non-foodborne zoonoses were reported all over the world. Although much progress is made to control swine non-foodborne zoonoses, we must remain vigilant to identified and control novel swine emerging zoonoses
The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and associated clinical signs in farmed sows in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) in the first 12-24 h postpartum. A total of 202 sows of different parity and different genetic lines from 5 pig farms in RM were included in the study. The sows and their litters were clinically examined 12-24 hours after farrowing. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome was detected in 23.3% of all clinically examined sows, while prevalence between farms ranged from 14.8% to 38.1%. Altered piglet’s behavior was the most frequent clinical pattern observed in 68.1% of the PDS–affected (PDSA) sows. Regarding the clinical signs in PDSA sows detected among farms, significant differences were observed in the altered piglet’s behavior (p<0.05) and hypogalactia (p<0.05). Endometritis was more often detected in older sows (90%) compared to endometritis in younger animals (44.4%). In addition, fever was also more frequently diagnosed in higher parity (≥3 parity) sows (55.0%) in contrast to other PDSA sows (22.2%). This study has demonstrated the presence of PDS in farmed sows in RM. High frequency of altered piglet’s behavior found in this study could be an useful indicator for early detection of lactation problems in sows. Frequent pathological vaginal discharge in older sows indicates that endometritis plays an important role in the clinical manifestation of PDS. Further investigations should be conducted in order to identify specific risk factors associated with clinical PDS in farmed sows in RM.
The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012) analyses of the sow productivity data in small (<200 sows, n=4) and large (200-1000 sows, n=5) commercial pig farms. The data was statistically evaluated and compared with the known literature. Sows productivity was greater on the small farms compared to the large ones. The small farms had larger litter per sow (PBL), more pigs born alive (PBA), higher weaning weight (WW) and more pigs weaned per sow per litter (PWSL) than the large ones (p<0.001). Small farms also had greater farrowing rate (FR) (p<0.01). Higher replacement rate (RR), lower average parity (AP), greater number of litters per sow per year (LSY) and higher sow death rate (SDR) were observed in large farms (p<0.001). The large farms also had less non-productive days (NPD) than the small farms (p<0.001). Different intensity of correlations also were observed for several productive parameters among the farm groups. The data obtained in this study show that sow productivity on Macedonian pig farms is lower than in EU countries. Small herds are more efficient than the large herds. Despite all limitations, our study provides information for veterinarians regarding reproductive parameters of sows and their interrelationships on Macedonian pig farms. Further investigation should be made in order to identify whether specific management factors have effect on the productivity of the breeding herd.
We hypothesized that a single dose of PGF2α belatedly injected on day 8 after GnRH-1 in cows receiving a 7-day Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH – 7 days – PGF2α – 56h – GnRH – 16h – timed AI) will increase the proportion of cows with complete luteolysis. At day 35±3 postpartum, 70 lactating Holstein cows from one herd were scored for body condition and pre-synchronized with PGF2α and GnRH (3 days apart) and 7 days later submitted to an Ovsynch-56 protocol for first AI after random assignment to two treatments: (1) OV-7 (n=35) with an injection of PGF2α either on day 7; or (2) OV-8 (n=35) on day 8 after G1, respectively. Blood was collected before the first PGF2α, at day 7 and day 8 in OV-7 and OV-8, respectively, at AI and at 7 days after AI to assess progesterone concentration. Ten cows were classified as acyclic and were excluded from the analysis resulting in 60 cows (OV-8, n=27; OV-7, n=33). In total, more (P=0.01) OV-8 cows and more (P=0.04) primiparous OV-8 cows had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates. In addition, more (P=0.008) OV-8 cows with BCS<2.75 had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates, whereas no difference was observed between treatments among cows with BCS ≥2.75. In conclusion, delaying the application of PGF2α by 1 day reduced the percentage of primiparous cows and cows with poorer BCS having incomplete luteal regression at the time of AI.
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in cattle caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis and to a lesser extent by Mycobacterium caprae. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can also cause the disease in domestic and wild animals and all of them have a zoonotic potential. The main purpose of the study was to determine the presence and distribution of the tuberculous lesions in reactor cattle, and to isolate and identify the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Macedonia. Lymph nodes and affected organs from 188 reactor cattle slaughtered due to a positive intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test were analyzed by detection of tuberculous lesions, followed by isolation and molecular identification of the isolated mycobacteria. The isolation was performed on selective media - Lowenstein Jensen with glycerol, Lowenstein Jensen without glycerol and Stonebrink medium supplemented with pyruvate. The molecular identification of the MTBC members was performed by analysis of the Regions of difference (RD1, RD9 and RD4) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lepA gene for Mycobacterium caprae. Typical tuberculous lesions were detected in 62 animals (33.0%) and the lesions were most prevalent in the mediastinal lymph nodes (47.5%). The isolated mycobacteria in the MTBC were identified as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae and were found in both animals with visible lesions (82.2%) and animals without visible lesions (27.7%). The slaughterhouse postmortem examinations and laboratory investigations should be included on regular bases in order to improve the National eradication program.
A six-month-old Pomeranian male dog was referred due to a month long history of unformed, soft faeces and mild weight loss. Stool analyses by direct faecal smear, Zinc sulphate flotation and the Baermann concentration method revealed an infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. The dog was initially treated once with a combination drug of praziquantel, pyrantel and febantel (½ Drontal® Plus Tablets for puppies and small dogs; Bayer; i.e. 31.5 mg/kg bodyweight of febantel
). The treatment was repeated after 12 days with the same dosage for 3 consecutive days. The stool analyses performed 14 days and 3 months after the second treatment were negative for S. stercoralis larvae. The results suggest that a repeated treatment with Drontal® Plus Tablets is effective against S. stercoralis in dogs and has no adverse effects.