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  • Author: Branka Ognjanović x
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Jelena Mladenović, Branka Ognjanović, Nataša Đorđević, Miloš Matić, Veroljub Knežević, Andraš Štajn and Zorica Saičić


The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of oestradiol (E2, 4 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) against cadmium-induced (Cd, 2 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) blood changes in rats. Cadmium induced a significant decline in haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and thrombocyte count, whereas total leukocytes and granulocytes increased. A significant increase was also observed in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, AST, and ALT activities, whereas total protein and albumin levels dropped significantly. Administration of E2 in combination with Cd alleviated most of these adverse effects. In terms of oxidative stress, Cd significantly increased oxygen-free radicals (O2 •- and H2O2) in neutrophils and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, whereas E2 treatment reversed these changes to control values. Acute Cd poisoning significantly lowered antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity and the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and vitamin E), while increasing in GSSG. Treatments with E2 reversed Cd-induced effects on the antioxidant defences and significantly lowered Cd-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes. This study suggests that exogenous E2 effectively restores redox balance in rat erythrocytes and counters adverse haematological and biochemical effects of Cd poisoning. It also improves the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes, acting in synergy with endogenous antioxidants.

Open access

Milica G. Paunović, Branka I. Ognjanović, Miloš M. Matić, Andraš Š. Štajn and Zorica S. Saičić


Nicotine is a potential inducer of oxidative stress, through which it can damage numerous biological molecules. The aim of our study was to investigate the prooxidative effects of nicotine and protective (additive or synergistic) effects of quercetin and vitamin C in the blood of experimental animals, to determine whether the combination of these antioxidants might be beneficial for clinical purposes. Wistar albino rats were receiving intraperitoneal nicotine injection (0.75 mg kg-1 per day) or saline (control group) or nicotine plus quercetin (40 mg kg-1 per day) and vitamin C (100 mg kg-1 per day) for three consecutive days. On day 4, we determined their blood lipid profile, liver enzymes, oxidative stress parameters, and antioxidative system parameters. Compared to untreated control, nicotine significantly increased total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, triglycerides, liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid peroxide) and decreased HDL-cholesterol, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase/catalase activity. Quercetin + vitamin C reversed these values significantly compared to the nicotine alone group. Our results confirm that nicotine has significant prooxidative effects that may disrupt the redox balance and show that the quercetin + vitamin C combination supports antioxidant defence mechanisms with strong haematoprotective activity against nicotine-induced toxicity. In practical terms, this means that a diet rich in vitamin C and quercetin could prevent nicotine-induced toxicity and could also be useful in the supportive care of people exposed to nicotine.