Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author: Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

This paper deals with historical aspects of the development of dermatovenereology in Serbia in the period of liberation wars against Turkey until gaining complete independence (1804 - 1878). Communicable diseases were a major health problem of that time. One of the most important infectious diseases was syphilis, and the development of dermatovenereology in Serbia began with fighting this disease. Special emphasis was put on the origin of the first hearth of the disease and prevalence of syphilis in the country. In this period, two dates were associated with eradication of syphilis: in 1846, the true nature of “frenga” (the term people used for syphilis) was established, and in 1851, the first hospital for venereal diseases was founded in Knjazevac. Another disease important for the development of dermatovenereology was scabies, which was also rather spread and required organized eradication. “Instructions on Scabies” were published in 1845, its treatment was mandatory, whereas people had a legal duty to report the disease. In both cases, the western medical doctrine was applied. The study also deals with a number of other skin and venereal diseases, which points to good professional knowledge of health professionals of that time.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

In the early 19th century, after several centuries of slavery, Serbia was liberated and along with the overall organization of the country, health services were formed. The first specialists appeared at the end of the century, among them our first dermatovenereologist, Dr. Jevrem Žujović. He was born in 1860 in Belgrade. He attended high school in Belgrade and in 1885 he graduated from School of Medicine in Paris. Dr. Žujović specialized in dermatovenereology in Paris, with Prof. Fournier as his mentor. He was the first Head of the Department of Skin Diseases and Syphilis at the General Public Hospital since 1889. He organized specialized services all over Serbia. His activity in the work of the Serbian Medical Society was very appreciated. Dr. Žujović studied endemic syphilis and leprosy, and translated A. Fournier’s book “Syphilis and Marriage”, and Loraine’s “Prostitution and Degeneration”. Together with M. Jovanović-Batut, he wrote “Instructions on Syphilis”.

As an Army Medical Officer, Dr. Žujović participated in the Serbo-Bulgarian war (1885), the First and the Second Balkan War and in the First World War (1912 - 1918). He was the vice-president of the Society of the Red Cross of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the first president of the newly-founded Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia. He was a recipient of many awards and decorations. Jevrem Žujović retired in 1927, and passed away in 1944.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

This paper deals with the period from 1881 to 1918, when the following Sanitary Laws were passed: Law on the Organization of the Sanitary Profession and Public Health Care (1881), which implemented measures for protection from venereal diseases, as well as restriction of prostitution; Public Sanitary Fund (1881), with independent budget for health care; Announcement on Free of Charge Treatment of Syphilis (1887). Dermatovenereological Departments were also founded: in the General Public Hospital in Belgrade (1881), and in the General Military Hospital (1909). The Hospital in Knjaževac for Syphilis was reopened (1881), as well as mobile and temporary hospitals for syphilis, and a network of County and Municipality hospitals. The first Serbian dermatovenereologist was Dr. Jevrem Žujović (1860 - 1944), and then Dr. Milorad Savićević (1877 - 1915). Skin and venereal diseases were treated by general practitioners, surgeons, internists and neurologists. Although Dr. Laza Lazarević (1851 - 1890) was not a dermatologist, but a physician and a writer, he published three papers on dermatovenereology, whereas Dr. Milorad Godjevac (1860 - 1933) wrote an important study on endemic syphilis. From 1885 to 1912, organization of dermatovenereology service has significantly improved. Considering the fact that archive documents are often missing, only approximate structure of diseases is specified: in certain monthly reports in Zaječar, out of all the diseased persons, 45% had skin or venereal diseases, while in Užice the number was 10.5%, which points to different distribution of these diseases. High percentage of dermatovenereology diseases was caused by high frequency of venereal diseases and syphilis. During the war: 1912 - 1918, the military medical service dominated, and in 1917 Prince Alexander Serbian Reserve Hospital was founded in Thessaloniki with a Department for Skin and Venereal Diseases. During this period, work of the Civilian Health Care Service was interrupted, consequently leading to a considerable aggravation of public health.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

The Pan-Slavic Association of Dermatovenereologists (PSADVs) was founded in May 1928, and it included dermatologic associations of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia. Its president was Prof. Krzysztalowicz from Poland. The 1st Congress of this association was held in Warsaw in 1929, and the 2nd Congress was organized by the Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia (ADVY), in Belgrade in 1931. The president of the Organizing Committee was Prof. Đorđe Đorđevic, and the secretary Assoc. Prof. Milan Kićevac from the Clinic of Dermatovenereology in Belgrade. The Congress was attended by representatives of Slavic national associations, as well as by representatives of French, Romanian, Greek and Turkish dermatology. The number of participants amounted to 160 physicians and 60 members of their families.

According to the report of Ilić S., 104 papers had been presented: 48 from Yugoslavia (37 from Serbia, 3 from Croatia, 3 from Macedonia, and 5 from Bosnia), 23 from Czechoslovakia, 18 from Poland, 8 from France, 5 from Romania, 1 from Turkey, and 1 from Greece.

Most papers were from the area of sexually transmitted diseases: 43 papers (41.35% of the total number). Out of these, 27 papers were on syphilis, followed by gonorrhea with 9 papers. There were both research and experimental papers. The authors insisted on assessing diagnostic and therapeutic issues, as well as disease prevention.

The second most frequent group of diseases accounted for eczema. The problem included the defi nition and pathogenesis of the disease. The third group of diseases was tuberculosis. The results of experiments on animals were studied pointing out the need for reclassifi cation of skin tuberculosis in relation to internal tuberculosis.

A small number of papers were on other infections of the skin and genitals, as well as individual cases of various dermatoses. During the Congress, social events were also organized, as well as a banquet on the ship Alexander I cruising on the Danube and Sava. Optional travel tours to all parts of Yugoslavia were also offered.

Soon after the Congress, foreign journals published reports on its high professional level and the entire organization.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

Owing to the enforced sanitary laws, the health care service in Serbia evolved systematically till the beginning of the Balkan Wars (1912). At the early phase of this period, in general hospitals dermatovenereology diseases accounted for 10.5% (Užice) to 45% (Zaječar), while venereal diseases prevailed (83.3% and 16.7%, respectively). In the period from 1880 to 1897, there were 12.354 Serbian soldiers with venereal diseases: 56.9% had Gonorrhoea, 28.9% had Ulcus molle, and 14.2% had Syphilis. The first official and professional statistics on Syphilis was done in 1898, and according to the report, 0.26% of the population of Serbia was affected by Syphilis: 1.42% in the Timok Region and 0.27% in Belgrade. Nevertheless, these data must be taken with caution, being very low. In regions with endemic Syphilis, tardive and tertiary Syphilis prevailed, whereas out of these regions, secondary forms of the disease were most common. In the period from 1882 to 1910, according to the reports of the Sanitary Department of the Ministry of Defense, skin diseases were reported in 3.1% to 15.2% of all hospitalized soldiers. Leprosy was diagnosed in 15 cases in Serbia; notification of all cases became compulsory in 1890. From 1912 to 1918, Serbia was at war, and the most common skin disease was a dermatozoonosis - pediculosios (lice infestation), which caused a tragic epidemic of exanthematous typhus in the army, but also among civilians. It was estimated that there were 500.000 sick persons, out of which over 150.000 died, including 56% of physicians and other medical staff working in hospitals. Disinfestation was the main treatment modality, using steam in so called “Serbian barrel”. At the Thessaloniki front line, in the Dermatovenereology Department, there were 41 dermatoses or groups of dermatoses, affecting the hospitalized soldiers, but scabies was scarce, owing to good hygiene. After the end of the First World War, the Serbian army and population were decimated, and the country ruined. Reconstruction of the country began once again.

Open access

Lalević-Vasić M. Bosiljka

Abstract

Đorđe Đorđević, a Serb from Croatia, was born in Grubišno polje (Croatia) on April 22, 1885. He studied medicine in Vienna and graduated in 1909. Till 1912, he advanced his knowledge working at dermatology clinics with Prof. Finger and Prof. Arning, as well as with Prof. Weichselbaum, professor of pathological anatomy and bacteriology. From 1912 he worked in Zagreb, at the Dermatology Department of the Brothers of Mercy Hospital, and during World War I as a military doctor at the Dermatology Department and the Zagreb Outpatient Department (Second kolodvor). After the war, in 1918, he moved to Belgrade, where he was the Head of the Polyclinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, and in 1922 he became an Assistant Professor of Dermatology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade. In the same year, he founded the Department of Dermatovenereology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade and the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, of which he was also the Head. In 1923, he became an Associate Professor, and in 1934 a Full Professor. He is given credit for passing legislation on prostitution and banning brothels.

The professional work of Prof. Đorđe Đorđević encompasses all areas of dermatology, including his special interest in experimental studies in the field of venereology. He organized medical-research trips to study people’s health status, and his teams visited the South Serbia (today Macedonia), Sandžak and Montenegro. In 1927, he founded the Dermatovenereology Section of the Serbian Medical Society (19) and the Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia. He was the chairman of the I, II and III Yugoslav Congress of Dermatology in Belgrade, and of the II Congress of the Pan-Slavic Association of Dermatovenereologists with international participation. He was an honorary member of the Bulgarian, Czechoslovakian, Polish and Danish Dermatological Societies, as well as a regular member of the Association of French Speaking Dermatologists, and of French, German and Biology Society. He was the Vice dean of the School of Medicine.

He died suddenly on April 27, 1935, shortly after his 50th birthday, and was mourned by colleagues, friends and students.

On the first anniversary of his death, his family, friends and colleagues established a ”Foundation of Dr. Đorđe-Đurica Đorđević” meant for ”doctors and health workers”. Unfortunately, the foundation was disestablished in the early eighties of the 20th century.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić

Abstract

During the multi-century Ottoman rule, there were no educated physicians in Serbia, and “folk healers” used to treat the sick. Just after the 3rd decade of the 19th century, when the first educated physicians came to Serbia, we can also speak about quackery. At that time, syphilis started spreading and some quacks became “specialists for syphilis”. They were most numerous in the North-East Serbia in the 4th and 5th decades of the 19th century. They represented a major problem, because people believed them more than they believed physicians, while the state authorities of just liberated country, tolerated them. The quacks were not familiar with the clinical features of syphilis, and mostly used mercury to treat it by fumigation and inhalation, rubbing it into the skin, proscribing mercury pills, while symptoms of severe, sometimes lethal intoxication were signs of successful treatment. They also used sarsaparilla. Authorities of the new Government often issued them permission to work, whereas professional control and prohibition of such treatment began in 1839, when the Health Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs was established.

The most famous quack, “specialist for syphilis”, was Gojko Marković, who was also a “physician” and the first director of the Hospital for the treatment of syphilis in Serbia during a certain period. A married couple, Gaja and Kita Savković, were also well known, as well as Stojan Milenković, a young man in the service of Prince Miloš. There were, of course, many adventurers, imposters, travelling Turkish and Greek physicians, Gipsies, fortune-tellers, old women, and ignorant people of various professions. Their work was banned by the Government.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić and Marina Jovanović

Abstract

The seven years’ war (1912 - 1918) and epidemics of infectious diseases, led to a great loss of lives and medical corps of Serbia. As already stated, venereal and skin diseases were spreading in the postwar period that can be seen from medical reports of dermatovenereology institutions. They contain appropriate pathologies and some specific conditions under which they developed. In dermatovenereal pathology, venereal diseases were still dominating. In the outpatient Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, 10.000 patients were examined during the period from 1919 to 1921, venereal diseases accounted for 73.13%, whereas skin diseases accounted for 26.87% of all established diagnoses. A similar distribution existed at the territory of Serbia (Belgrade excluded) in 1931: venereal diseases accounted for 73.4%, and skin diseases for 26.6%; moreover, in Belgrade, the situation was even more drastic: venereal diseases accounted for 84.7%, and skin diseases for 15.3%. However, in the student population, the distribution was reversed: 43% and 57%, respectively. In regard to venereal diseases, in the series from 1919 to 1921, non-endemic syphilis was the most common disease, if serologically positive cases (latent syphilis) were added up to the clinically manifested cases. In the same series of patients, syphilis was staged as follows: syphilis I in 10%, syphilis II in 29.3%, syphilis III in 1.7%, tabes dorsalis in 0.8%, and latent syphilis in 56% of patients. In regions with endemic syphilis, from 1921 to 1925, the distribution was as follows: syphilis I in 4%, syphilis II in 49.8%, syphilis III in 18.3%, hereditary syphilis in 1.3%, and latent syphilis in 26.5% of patients. In patients suffering from gonorrhea, balanitis was found in 4.5%, and arthritis in 0.43% of cases. Generally, spreading of prostitution had a significant role, and its abolition was an important preventive action. In regard to skin diseases, in the above-mentioned series of patients, treated at the Outpatient Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases (1919 - 1921), scabies was the commonest skin disease (26.7%), eczemas were the second most common (21.8%), followed by pyococcal diseases (20.4%), while fungal diseases (4.5%) and skin tuberculosis (1.9%) were considerably less frequent.

This is the final report about the foundation of modern dermatovenereology in Serbia.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić and Branko Bobić

Abstract

Medieval medicine in Serbia used to be the scientific medicine of that time. It included dermatology and venereology, which developed into an independent discipline in the second half of the 19th century. The most relevant sources for studying dermatology and venereology are Serbian medieval medical and therapeutic codices. The terms used in the manuscripts report about the diseases people in Serbia suffered from and were treated for in the Middle Ages. The following diseases were reported: scabies, leprosy, fungal scalp infections, as well as psoriasis, crusts (pyococcal ulcers), granulation, baldness, excessive body hair, leg wounds and old wounds, facial spots, unspecified skin diseases, urethritis and syphilis. Special attention was also given to cosmetics. Topical remedies were applied - various herbs, sulphur, mercury, tar, pyrethrum, plasters, ground glass, auripigment - in the form of a powder, liniment, ointment or plaster.

Open access

Bosiljka M. Lalević-Vasić and Marina Jovanović

Abstract

After the First World War, Serbia was facing the lack of hospitals and physicians, and organization of the health care system was a real challenge. Both problems were closely associated with dermatovenereology. Between the two world wars, a great contribution to the development of Serbian dermatovenereology as a current discipline was given by Prof. Dr. Đorđe Đorđević, who was the first director of the Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade (1922 - 1935), and by his closest associate Prof. Dr. Milan Kićevac (1892 - 1940) who was his successor at the position of the director of the Clinic (1935 - 1940). In 1922, Prof. Dr. Đorđe Đorđević was the founder of two institutions significant for Serbian dermatovenereology: Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases, where he also acted as a director, and the Department of Dermatovenereology at the School of Medicine in Belgrade, where he was the first teacher of dermatovenereology. In 1927, Prof. Dr. Đorđe Đorđević initiated the foundation of the Dermatovenereology Section of the Serbian Medical Society, and he and his associate and successor, Prof. Dr. Milan Kićevac were the main organizers of the Association of Dermatovenereologists of Yugoslavia. With this Association, all other regional dermatovenereology sections in the County became parts of the Pan-Slavic Dermatovenereology Association. Prof. Dr. Đorđe Đorđević and Prof. Dr. Milan Kićevac also organized the First, Second and the Third Yugoslav Dermatovenereology Congresses (1927, 1928, and 1929), and in 1931, the Second Congress of Pan-Slavic Dermatovenereology Association. Their teamwork resulted in legislation concerned with health care, eradication of venereal diseases and prostitution, and finally with setting the foundation for professional and scientific dermatovenereology in Serbia. Prof. Đ. Đorđević investigated current problems of venereal diseases and organized professional expeditions in Serbia and Montenegro studying the expansion of syphilis. However, in his experimental work, Prof. M. Kićevac investigated photo-dermatoses and the IV venereal disease, at the same time pointing to immunological phenomena in streptococcal and staphylococcal infections. Dr. Vojislav Mihailović (1879 - 1949) was a significant figure in Serbian dermatovenereology and acted as the Chief of the Department of Skin and Venereal Diseases within the General Public Hospital in Belgrade. His scientific papers and books on the history of dermatovenereology and general medicine had a great impact on the Serbian dermatovenereology. His books dealing with the history of dermatovenereology: “The History of Venereal Diseases till 1912” and “Out of the History of Sanitary Health Care in the Rebuilt Serbia from 1804 - 1860”. Associate Professor Dr. Sava Bugarski (1897 - 1945), a student of Prof. Dr. Kićevac and later the director of Clinic for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade (1940 - 1945), was engaged in the field of experimental dermatovenereology. Dr. Jovan Nenadović (1875 - 1952), one of the most eminent physicians in Novi Sad, took part in the foundation and work of the Dermatovenereology Section of the Serbian Medical Society as well as its honorary life president. In 1919, he founded the Dermatovenereology Department within the Novi Sad Hospital, as well as an Outpatient Dermatovenereology Clinic, outside the Hospital, although he was the director of both institutions. In the period between the two world wars, among the most prominent physicians of the Military Sanitary Headquarters who contributed the development of dermatovenereology were the chiefs of the Dermatovenereology Department of the General Military Hospital in Belgrade: Major, later on, Brigadier General, Dr. Božidar Janković (1874 - 1936), and the Sanitary Brigadier General, Dr. Milivoje Pantić (1885 - 1959). Dr. B. Janković wrote important professional papers, among which the following are most significant: ”Fight against Venereal Diseases in the Army” and ”Treatment of Syphilis with Silber-Salvarsan.” Distinguished physicians of the military sanitary service, such as Dr. Petar Davidović, made significant contributions to the work of civilian dermatovenereology institutions of that time. In 1921, Dr. Petar Davidović was the director of the newly founded Venereal Department of the Niš Public Hospital, which was on a high professional level.