This paper deals with historical aspects of the development of dermatovenereology in Serbia in the period of liberation wars against Turkey until gaining complete independence (1804 - 1878). Communicable diseases were a major health problem of that time. One of the most important infectious diseases was syphilis, and the development of dermatovenereology in Serbia began with fighting this disease. Special emphasis was put on the origin of the first hearth of the disease and prevalence of syphilis in the country. In this period, two dates were associated with eradication of syphilis: in 1846, the true nature of “frenga” (the term people used for syphilis) was established, and in 1851, the first hospital for venereal diseases was founded in Knjazevac. Another disease important for the development of dermatovenereology was scabies, which was also rather spread and required organized eradication. “Instructions on Scabies” were published in 1845, its treatment was mandatory, whereas people had a legal duty to report the disease. In both cases, the western medical doctrine was applied. The study also deals with a number of other skin and venereal diseases, which points to good professional knowledge of health professionals of that time.