Boris Miha Kaučič, Bojana Filej and Marija Ovsenik
Introduction. Holism has been poorly researched in the field of health and social gerontology. The old man is a whole, therefore he needs a holistic treatment. It means that we consider his bio-psycho-social and spiritual needs. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship of a psychological holistic factor with life satisfaction in old age.
Material and methods. For the needs of the research work, a quantitative research method was used. A simple random sample was selected from the statistical set. The survey included 1064 elderly people in Slovenia (65 years and over) in ten statistical regions living in the domestic (n=532) and institutional (n=532). Environment. Sample realization was 61.6 % (656 correct questionnaires). According to demographic data, the survey involved 470 (71.6%) women and 186 (28.4%) men. The average age of the respondent was 78.2 years. The data was analyzed with the R MICE package. The analysis of causal effects and conditional associations advanced statistical methods, i.e. propensity score methods, and a questionnaire as a structured measurement instrument were used.
Results. Obtained research results imply a scientific contribution in the field of quality management of people in old age and their life quality. On the basis of statistical calculations, the hypothesis that the psychological holistic factor (R2=0.21) is related to life satisfaction in old age is confirmed. We proved that indexes: social networks (R2=0.176), positive emotions (R2=0.366), loneliness (R2=0.151), cognitive abilities (R2=0.162) studied within a psychological holistic factor affect life satisfaction.
Discussion and conclusion. Research confirmed that within the psychological factor, the most intimately related to life satisfaction is the emotional index, followed by the index of social networks, cognitive abilities and the last index of loneliness. For the holistic treatment of old man, in which the psychological factor is the only one of the four holistic factors, both structural and process changes are required for achievement of better outcomes, in our case, higher levels of satisfaction with life in old age.
Tina Razlag Kolar, Boris Miha Kaučič and Tamara Štemberger Kolnik
Introduction. The level of health literacy tells us how an individual functions within the healthcare system, how well he or she understands the instructions connected to health care, and how he or she looks after own health. However, at the same time, it can be an indicator of how healthy an individual is going to be in the future. In our research we wanted to establish the role of a nurse in improving health literacy among older adults.
Method. The research was based on a quantitative research approach, using descriptive method. Data were collected with the interviewing technique. As a measuring instrument, a questionnaire formed on the basis of the review of domestic and foreign, professional and scientific literature, was used. We used a non-random purposive pattern, in which we included 148 older adults aged 65 years and above, who live in different residential environments and do not suffer from dementia. There were 140 correctly completed questionnaires, which represent a 94% realization of the sample. The data were analyzed by statistical program SPSS 22.0.
Results. Older adults who took part in the research have achieved limited health literacy in the fields of general health literacy (AV=27.0), healthcare (AV=26.2), disease prevention (AV=28.8) and health promotion (AV=26.6). In the field of nurse counseling they achieved sufficient health literacy (AV=34.6).
Discussion and conclusion. Health literacy is one of the factors that significantly affect the quality of life of older adults. We established that older adults who took part in the research have limited health literacy. The nurses can significantly contribute to improving the health literacy of older adults through health-educational work and health promotion. In the future, the role of the nurse in health promotion will have to become more prominent, particularly through their work in reference clinics and reference centers for health promotion.
Bojana Filej, Boris Miha Kaučič, Boštjan Žvanut and Mojca Saje
Introduction. Man is a unique, unrepeatable whole in space and time and that is why he requires a holistic treatment, taking into account physical, psychological, social and spiritual factors. The balanced factors can ensure human well-being and his quality of life. Integrated treatment is especially important for patients in palliative care, which was the basic starting point of our research. In our research we wanted to establish whether the patients in palliative care are treated holistically from the perspective of the nurses and where are the specific aspects of palliative care (psychological, physical, social and spiritual) more visible - in the hospitals or in the home environment.
Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was based on the empirical quantitative methodology; a descriptive causal non-experimental method was used. The number of the included sample was 127 nurses (92 hospital nurses, 35 community nurses). To test the differences between the groups (hospital, community nursing), the single factor analysis of variance was used. All the research participants were ensured anonymity and they had the right to withdraw from the study before or during the questionnaire completion.
Results. The physical aspect of the treatment was statistically significantly higher assessed by nurses in a hospital setting (̅χ =3.83; s=1.012; p=0.042). The psychological and spiritual aspects were higher assessed in community nursing setting and social aspect in hospital setting.
Conclusions. Our research has highlighted the shortcomings of the holistic approach in palliative care. Nurses need in-depth knowledge and skills as well as practice within each holistic domain to perform quality treatment of palliative patients.
Barbara Zupanc Terglav, Špela Selak, Mitja Vrdelja, Boris Miha Kaučič and Branko Gabrovec
Introduction. Patients’ satisfaction has a very important role regarding reforms of the healthcare system, which aim at improvement of health and optimisation of costs. Informed patient is one of the factors which notably influences patients’ satisfaction.
Aim. To determine the level of satisfaction of Slovenian residents with the current healthcare system and how well informed they are about the draft law changes to the Healthcare and Health Insurance Act, debated in public in 2017.
Methods. A descriptive, non-experimental sampling method was used (snowball method). A structured questionnaire was used as a measurement tool. The number of 488 persons finished the entire online questionnaire. The data were analysed using the SPSS programme, version 21 (significance level p<0.05), and using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, t-test and linear regression analysis.
Results. Slovenian residents are fairly (un)satisfied with the current healthcare system. Waiting lines affect satisfaction with the current health care system the most, followed by the level of trust in a doctor’s decision concerning treatment and the level of respectfulness in the communication of healthcare workers with patients. Although respondents are less informed about the proposed changes, they support the draft law changes to a high degree. They perceive the information provided on the proposed changes in healthcare as relatively understandable and evaluate them positively. Television is the most important source of information on law changes in healthcare.
Discussion and conclusions. Slovenian residents support the public healthcare system to a very high degree and are less in favour of private healthcare. In the future, more attention needs to be directed towards the related strategic communication and the choice of communication channels with the planned changes in healthcare.