Dejan Krstić, Darko Zigar, Dejan Petković, Dušan Sokolović, Boris Đinđić, Nenad Cvetković, Jovica Jovanović and Nataša Đinđić
The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.
Biljana Jovović, Nevenka Lečić, Marija Jelić, Goran Damnjanović, Boris Đinđić and Dušan Sokolović
Lipid Disorders And Inflammation in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Treated With Statins
The research focused on 40 patients (22 women and 18 men) with DM type 2, 26 of who underwent statin therapy and 14 of them followed a hygienic-dietetic regime. After a year of careful observation, the concentration of triglycerides (TG) was determined, as well as the overall cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, nonHDL cholesterol and atherogenic indices. As far as inflammatory indicators are concerned, the concentrations of highly sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP), intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) were determined; they were also compared among the therapy groups. The average TC and LDL-C values were considerably lower in the group treated by statins (5.6 ± 1.2 vs. 6.3 ± 1.4 mmol/L and 3.5 ± 0.9 vs. 4 ± 1.3 mmol/L, p<0.05). The values of TG, HDL-C, atherogenic indices LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C and inflammatory indicators ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 did not differ significantly among the groups. The values of nonHDL-C were considerably lower in the group treated by statins (4.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L, p<0.05), as well as the values of hsCRP (3.3 ± 2.2 vs. 5.6 ± 2.17 mg/dl, p<0.01). Parallel analysis showed a significant correlation between the concentration of TC and LDL-C and the values of ICAM-1 (C=0.55 and C=0.65, p<0.05). Anti-lipoid effects of statins are complemented with their significant antiinflammatory influence on the reduction of the value of hsCRP, which proved to be the most important prognostic factor for the onset of atherosclerosis. Antiinflammatory effects of statins are supplemented by a significant decrease in the concentration of ICAM-1 in the conditions where the value of TC and LDL-C is reduced in patients with DM type 2.
Biljana Jovović, Nevenka Lečć, Marija Jelić, Goran Damnjanović, Boris Đinđić and Dušan Sokolović
Disturbance In The Composition of Lipoprotein Particles And Chronic Inflammation As Prognostic Factors In The Development of Coronary Disease
The study focused on 30 dyslipidemic patients (12 women and 18 men); 16 of them had coronary disease (CD). The concentrations of apoA and apoB were determined in all patients, as well as the calculated ratio between apoA and apoB. As far as inflammatory indicators are concerned, the concentrations of sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP), albumin, fibrinogen, intracellular adhesive molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesive molecule (VCAM -1) were determined. In patients with CD there were considerably higher concentrations of fibrinogen (3.1 ± 1.2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.7 g/L) and VCAM-1 (10.9 ± 3.6 vs. 8.3 ± 2.8 g/L) (p<0.05) while the numerical values of hsCRP and ICAM-1 were not significantly different in relation to the patients without CD. The concentration of apoB and the value of apoB/apoA ratio were considerably higher in patients with CD (1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.9 ± 0.4; p<0.05), whereas the concentration of apoA did not differ in relation to the patients without CD. The research confirmed the significance of the disturbance in the composition of lipoprotein particles and the systemic inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, whereas their significant mutual connection was not shown. This indicates their cumulative effect and different mechanisms at the base of these disturbances.