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Open access

Nadja Podmenik, Bojan Leskošek and Frane Erčulj

The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players' Shot Accuracy

Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players' shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women's European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased.

Open access

Ales Filipcic, Bojan Leskosek and Tjasa Filipcic


The purpose of the study was to determine the timing of a split-step in three categories of tennis players in four groups of strokes. Subjects were divided into three groups: male and female junior, and male professional tennis players. During two tournaments, all matches were recorded with two fixed video cameras. For every stroke, the timing of the split-step between the opponent’s impact point when hitting the ball and the player’s split-step was measured. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences between groups of strokes, players and the interaction Player x Stroke Group. A Tukey post-hoc test was employed to determine specific differences. The results revealed differences between players in detecting the opponent’s movement, stroke and ball flight, which were reflected in different split-step timings. Each tennis player has his/her own timing mechanism which they adapt to various game situations. Response times differ significantly depending on the game situation. On average, they are the lowest in the serve, and then gradually rise from the return of the serve to baseline game, reaching the highest values in specific game situations. Players react faster in the first serve than in the second one and in the return of the serve, the response times are lower after the return of the second serve

Open access

Aleš Filipčič, Bojan Leskošek, Goran Munivrana, Gabriela Ochiana and Tjaša Filipčič


This study investigated tennis players’ speed before, during and after the split-step, deceleration before and acceleration after the split-step in four different stroke groups in three age categories. Seven male professional, eleven male and ten female junior tennis players were recorded with video cameras at official tournaments. Using the SAGIT system, we gathered data on 8,545 split-steps. Tennis players performed a split-step in 82.9% of cases. A tennis player’s speed, deceleration and acceleration were measured 0.2 s before and after the split-step. Differences between categories and stroke groups for each of the five variables were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA. The differences between the groups of players were generally much higher in the speed before, during and after the split-step than in the deceleration before and acceleration after the split-step. Most of these differences were observed between the various stroke groups. These results suggest that players use three types of movement while performing a split-step. In the first type, which is typical of serving and returning, the speed before, during and after the split-step is lower (0.55 to 1.2 m/s). The second type of movement is characteristic of baseline strokes where tennis players achieve higher speed than in the first type (0.7 to 1.66 m/s). The third type occurs in strokes where a tennis player is moving or already at the net (0.78 to 1.9 m/s). Movement in tennis is an area that requires constant development in terms of designing and upgrading movement patterns, increasing speed and practice in specific game situations.

Open access

Jožef Križaj, Bojan Leskošek, Janez Vodičar and Mojca Doupona Topič


The purpose of this study was to identify factors that constituted the cultural capital among soccer players. We assumed that in the increasingly globalized world of professional soccer, a player’s success would often depend on migrating and adjusting to life in other countries. Willingness to migrate and successful adjustment are tied to player’s previous attitudes and/or behaviours (habitus), significant support from others, including family members, and previous experiences and success in sports and education. Our hypothesised model of the cultural capital was based on the Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. It consisted of 26 variables related to three sets of factors: soccer experiences, a family context and support, and educational achievements of the players and their parents. The model was tested using a sample of 79 current soccer coaches who also had been players at the elite level. A factor analysis was used to empirically verify the content of the hypothetical model of the soccer players’ cultural capital. Nine latent factors were extracted and together, they accounted for 55.01% of the total model variance. Individual factors obtained showed a sufficient level of substantial connection. The Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.77 confirmed the internal consistency of the operationalised variables in the hypothetical model. In addition, the impact of these aforementioned life dimensions on the migration of soccer players was studied. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the first factor of the hypothetical model (F1) had 2.2 times and the second factor (F8) had 3.9 times higher odds for migration abroad. Sociocultural findings using this new assessment approach could help create better “success conditions” in the talent development of young players.

Open access

Marjeta Kovač, Gregor Jurak, Lijana Zaletel Kragelj and Bojan Leskošek


Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades. The survey examined overweight and obesity in the population of boys and girls from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, aged seven through fourteen from 1991 to 2011.

Methods: An annually repeated cross-sectional study of data from the national SLOFIT monitoring system was used. The body mass index cut-off points of the International Obesity Task Force were used to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for modelling the probability of overweight and obesity as a function of time (year of measurement), sex and age of subjects.

Results: In 1991-2011 period, the odds for overweight and obesity among primary school children (n = 376,719) increased every year by 1.7% (95% CI: 1.6-1.9) and 3.7% (3.4-4%) respectively. Boys have 1.17 (95% CI: 1.15-1.20) times higher odds of becoming overweight and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.35-1.44) times higher odds of becoming obese than girls. In comparison to the reference group (age of 14), the highest odds for overweight were found at the ages of nine and ten (1.39; 95% CI: 1.34-1.44), while for the obesity the highest odds were at the age of eight (2.01; 95% CI: 1.86-2.16).

Conclusion: From 1991 to 2011, overweight and obesity clearly became more prevalent in children from Ljubljana. This trend has been more obvious among boys than girls. In comparison to 14-year-old boys and girls, the highest odds for excessive weight were found below the age of 10.

Open access

Sandra Planinšek, Branko Škof, Bojan Leskošek, Martina Žmuc Tomori and Maja Pori


Izhodišča: Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti povezanost med športno dejavnostjo (ŠD) in doživljanjem stresa ter vrednotenjem zadovoljstva z življenjem odraslih Slovencev.

Metode: Podatki so bili pridobljeni s pomočjo anketnega vprašalnika na reprezentativnem vzorcu 856 odraslih Slovencev in Slovenk (povprečne starosti 39 ± 13,7 leta). ŠD je bila opredeljena s številom dni ukvarjanja s katero koli športno dejavnostjo tedensko. Stres je bil opredeljen s pogostostjo doživljanja devetih znakov stresa na štiristopenjski lestvici. Pri oceni zadovoljstva z življenjem so udeleženci raziskave izrazili strinjanje oziroma nestrinjanje s petimi postavkami na petstopenjski lestvici. Vrednosti prve glavne komponente stresa in lestvice zadovoljstva z življenjem je bila določena z Anderson-Rubinovo metodo. Povezanost spremenljivk je bila ocenjena s Spearmanovim koeficientom korelacije in s splošnimi linearnimi modeli.

Rezultati: ŠD je bila statistično značilno povezana s stresom (p = ,03) in z zadovoljstvom z življenjem (p < ,01). V linearnih modelih imajo izbrani dejavniki (ŠD, starost, spol in izobrazba) skupaj statistično značilen vpliv (pri stresu: R2 = ,040; p < ,001; pri zadovoljstvu: R2 = ,068; p < ,001); ŠD ima statistično značilen vpliv le na oceno zadovoljstva z življenjem (η2 part.= ,020; p = ,002). Na stres statistično značilno vplivajo vsi preostali dejavniki, na zadovoljstvo z življenjem pa le izobrazba.

Zaključki: Na podlagi dobljenih rezultatov lahko sklepamo, da so športno dejavnejši odrasli Slovenci manj pod stresom in bolj zadovoljni s svojim življenjem, vendar je ta vpliv ob upoštevanju vpliva starosti, spola in izobrazbe razmeroma majhen.

Open access

Maja Bučar Pajek, Ivan Čuk, Jernej Pajek, Marjeta Kovač and Bojan Leskošek

In the present study, the reliability and validity of judging at the European championship in Berlin 2011 were analysed and the results were compared to a different level gymnastic competition - Universiade 2009 in Belgrade. For reliability and consistency assessment, mean absolute judge deviation from final execution score, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intra-class correlations (ICC) and Armor’s theta coefficient were calculated. For validity assessment mean deviations of judges’ scores, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were used. For Berlin 2011 in general Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.95, minima of item-total correlations were above 0.8, and the ICC of average scores and Armor’s theta were above 0.94. Comparison with Universiade 2009 identified vault and floor scores at both competitions to have inferior reliability indices. At both competitions average deviations of judges from the final E score were close to zero (p=0.84) but Berlin 2011 competition showed a higher number of apparatuses with significant Kendall’s W (5 vs. 2 for Universiade 2009) and higher eta-squared values indicating higher judge panel bias in all-round and apparatus finals. In conclusion, the quality of judging was comparable at examined gymnastics competitions of different levels. Further work must be done to analyse the inferior results at vault and floor apparatuses.