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  • Author: Bogusława Kupczak-Wiśniowska x
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Bogusława Kupczak-Wiśniowska, Jolanta Borgosz, Beata Podsiadło, Bogusława Serzysko and Elżbieta Jędrkiewicz


Introduction. In the recent thirty years obesity has become one of the most serious and still increasing health problems among children and adults in the world. Scientific magazines inform about world obesity epidemic. Lack of physical activity, excessive energy supply compared to needs of organism, as well as bad eating habits, have made obesity a civilization disease. Excess weight and obesity lead to premature atherosclerosis development and consequently, to other cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, thrombosis, cardiac insufficiency, hyperlipemia.

Aim. The aim of the thesis is to present, on the basis of literature, the most important factors which can lead to obesity in children.


  1. Among the most important aspects which can lead to obesity in children the following factors can be mentioned:

    • genetic factors - it is probable that mutations within many genes connected with energy efficiency regulation of an organism are responsible for the genetic tendency to being obese

    • environmental factors - there is another fact that together with technological development, the level of physical activity has decreased

    • psychological factors, like stress, fear, failures at school, family and peer conflicts have become the reasons for compulsive behaviour which lead to excessive consumption of highly processed foods

  2. Obesity results in lowering the quality of life in a significant way.

Open access

Jolanta Borgosz, Bogusława Kupczak-Wiśniowska, Beata Podsiadło and Bogusława Serzysko


Introduction. Retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a validated reference method for detection and treatment of choledocholithiasis. It can be performed at any stage of treatment. It allows for differentiation of bile retention causes, assessment of the level of bile ducts dilation, location of the obstruction level and establishment of recommendations for invasive bile ducts tests. Despite varied course of choledocholithiasis, swift detection and removal of stones from bile ducts should be striven for due to a potential risk of life-threatening complications.

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of the retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with suspected bile ducts choledocholithiasis.

Material and methods. Based on the literature review, the retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the diagnostics of bile ducts choledocholithiasis has been evaluated. Identification of choledocholithiasis, regardless of clinical symptoms, is associated with the decision to remove deposits from bile ducts. ERCP is the method of choice.

Conclusions. As studies by numerous authors show, cholelithiasis can be the leading cause of cholangitis and pancreatitis. Diagnostic ERCP with evacuation deposits remains the most recommended diagnostic method in such cases.