Effect of rushes on evaporation rate in water reservoirs on the example of Powidzkie Lake
This paper presents research on evaporation from the lake surface within the reed bed zone. The main focus of the research was the process of evaporation of water adhered to reed culms in different weather conditions. The process of transpiration, i.e. evaporation of water from plants due to their physiological processes was ignored. To avoid any ambiguity and to stress the different nature of both processes, the studied phenomenon is referred to as "mechanical evaporation". The analysis was based on measurements taken on Powidzkie Lake. The results showed that "mechanical evaporation" from reed culms above the water level can considerably increase evaporation rate of an aquifer. The values of total evaporation within the reed bed zone were estimated. These were compared to the values of evaporation from the open lake surface. The rate difference was at the level of 10-30%. Furthermore, the study showed that the value of "mechanical evaporation" varied depending on the reed species, wind speed and direction, wave height, and width of lakeshore with vegetation. Seasonal variations of the lake's water surface were of slightly lesser importance.
Bogumił Nowak, Barbara Brodzińska and Izabela Gezella-Nowak
Natural and economic factors of shrinkage of lakes of the Wielkopolska Lakeland
The paper discusses the issue of plant overgrowth in the littoral zone of lakes. It presents the plant encroachment process and its environmental and economic consequences based on the example of selected lakes of the Wielkopolska Lakeland. In order to estimate changes of quantity in the riparian vegetation structure, historical records of changes of reed bed areas were compared with their present areas. Historical data included bathymetric plans from the 1960's created by the Institute of Inland Fisheries and information obtained from interviews with the inhabitants of settlements located in the vicinity of the studied lakes. Present-day boundaries of reed bed zones were identified using orthophotos, aerial photographs and in situ inspections. In the course of the field research, identification of plant species and estimates of plant condition in the studied stands were carried out. Obtained data combined with data on local hydrological-meteorological conditions, water quality and land use in the direct vicinity of lakes allowed the authors to determine the conditioning factors of riparian vegetation encroachment. The collected evidence allowed the authors to establish that in the last five decades, the area of reed beds around the studied lakes increased by an average of 15-20%. This process was usually accompanied by the encroachment of hydrophytic plants consequently leading to the shrinkage of supralittoral zones. In the last 20 years, these two phenomena intensified considerably, particularly during two low water periods noted during this period. However, the encroachment of riparian vegetation proceeded differently in the case of each lake and it was most protrusive in highly eutrophicated reservoirs and those with a history of permanent or long-term lowering of the water table. The qualitative structure of the studied plant communities was conditioned mostly by nutrient inflow and the type of growing medium. In large clean lakes and in zones of sandy lake bottom, the reed beds were dominated by the common reed (Phragmitetum australis). In smaller, polluted lakes and shielded bays of larger lakes with stagnant water, beside multi-species reed beds, floating-leaf hydrophytic macrophyte plants of the genus Nymphaea, tall stands of sedges and helophytes were observed.
The paper presents an attempt to assess the effect of damming of lakes on water resources, based on the example of Lake Powidzkie (Central Poland) and its catchment. The region in which the analysed object is located has the greatest water deficits in Poland. The co-occurrence of unfavourable natural and anthropogenic factors contributed to a considerable reduction in the water resources retained in the lake. Particularly low water levels were recorded in the 1990s and in the first decade of the 21st century. The situation was not improved by a water dam constructed on the out-flow from the lake in the 1960s, due, among other things, to neglect in its exploitation. With regard to the modernisation of the dam in 2010 and the favourable hydrological situation in the winter of 2011, it was possible to retain the excess water and substantially reduce its outflow. The restoration of the lost water resources, and the hydrological benefits of this were still observable several years later. Problems related to water deficits are becoming increasingly common in many regions of the world. One solution to mitigate such a situation may be, among others, to dam natural lakes. This is simpler, cheaper, and less invasive for the environment than the construction of new water reservoirs.
Dissolved oxygen in water (DO) is one of the primary parameters determining its quality. It remains in close relation to water temperature. The article presents results of DO and water temperature measurements performed for five stratified lakes in Poland in the years 2007-2014. The measurements were performed with monthly frequency in the summer half-year (May-October) in the deepest place of each of the lakes. The compared data show the complex character of the course of both of the parameters. The analysis of depth profiles revealed the prevalence of a decreasing tendency, or no tendency was recorded - both in the case of DO and water temperature. Due to the incoherent character of the water in the case of stratified lakes, a more detailed comparison was performed, referring to changes occurring in zones developed during summer stratification. It was determined that the temperature of the epilimnion was directly dependent on air temperature, and in all cases it showed an increasing tendency. Simultaneously, along with an increase in temperature, in the majority of cases, DO concentration in the zone decreased. In reference to the waters of the hypolimnion, increasing, decreasing, and no tendencies were recorded. The above distribution is determined by individual factors of the lakes - morphometry, trophic status, groundwater alimentation, etc. Several years of measurements of DO and water temperature in depth profiles of several lakes in Poland constitute valuable information on the current transformations of the environment of this part of Europe. In the future, the information can provide the basis for long-term analyses over the next decades, enriching global knowledge on those parameters of key importance for water ecosystems.
The paper presents the dynamics of daily water temperature fluctuations in Lake Kierskie (West Poland) and determines the effect of air temperatures and wind speed on the variability of the parameter (water temperature). The analysis was based on hourly water temperature values from the period from May 2012 to January 2018. The data analysis permitted the description of the thermal regime of waters in the lake in the hourly cycle in reference to each month, and designation of months characterised by the highest and lowest stability of water temperatures. More than half of the analysed days was characterised by a change in water temperature not exceeding 1°C. The course of water temperature showed strongly positive correlations with air temperature, and weak correlations with wind speed. Water temperatures in the lake were correlated the strongest with air temperatures with a 24 h time step.
The article presents the analysis of water level fluctuations in Lake Powidzkie in the years 1961–2015. The study shows a considerable decrease in mean water levels in the aforementioned multiannual period, averaging 9 cmꞏdecade−1. Such a situation is caused by natural as well as anthropogenic factors, co-determining water relations in the study area. The natural factors include the amount and distribution of precipitation, increase in air temperature and evaporation size, unfavourable relations between the lake and catchment or hydrogeological conditions. Anthropogenic factors particularly include long-term transformations of the natural environment in the region, currently associated with meliorations accompanying the nearby opencast brown coal mines and exploitation of groundwaters for municipal purposes. Water shortages occurring during dry periods were shown not to be compensated in the study area in humid years. This is particularly related to the regional lowering of the aquifer remaining in close relations with Lake Powidzkie. Counteracting the unfavourable hydrological situation is done through hydrotechnical infrastructure which partially limits water outflow from the lake through damming.