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  • Author: Bogumił Lewandowski x
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The Role and Place of Hyperthermal Geocomplexes in the Landscape- Geochemical Systems
Open access
Selected issues of oral diseases in the work of a district nurse and primary care nurse


Introduction. Oral health condition and its influence on general health is widely known and does not raise any doubts.

Aim. The study presents some selected problems of oral diseases and dental issues, which, according to the authors, can be useful or even necessary in the work of an environmental nurse.

Material and methods. A Polish literature review was made concerning broad subject of oral diseases. Online research included the following databases: PubMed, Google Scholar PL, Termedia, Viamedica, Polish Medical Bibliography. The searched terms included: “health education”, “dental caries”, “nurse”, “environment”, “periodontal diseases”, “focal infection”. The analysis was based on the Polish articles from the years 1998-2016.

Results. Issues concerning dentistry should be known not only to dental teams but also to all members of medical staff: nurses, midwives, general practitioners, pediatricians, and emergency medical workers. In the study there discussed the most frequent - carious disease and related issues concerning oral disease prevention.

Open access
Polish adaptation of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anaesthesia Scale


Introduction. The paper presents the adaptation of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale to the conditions in Polish hospitals.

Methods. The process of cultural adaptation of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale was divided into three stages. The first stage was to formulate the Polish version of the ISAS. Secondly, the scale was used in the group of patients who were diagnosed with a maxillofacial injury and underwent surgical procedure. The final stage evaluated the psychometric features of the Polish version of the ISAS.

Results. 195 questionnaires were completed correctly and they were subject to further analysis. The questionnaires were collected from patients residing at the Maxillofacial Surgery Clinical Ward who were operated under a general anaesthesia due to a maxillofacial trauma. The average result of the satisfaction with anaesthesia in a studied group was 0.77 (scale from -3 to +3) M=2, SD=2.41. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient calculated for 11 multiple choice questions was 0.598. It would be possible to increase the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient if question no. 1 (I vomited or felt nauseous) was eliminated from the test (maximum 0.601). Every item on the scale had significant influence on the general result (p=0.0001).

Conclusions. Polish version of the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale meets the criteria of the psychometric equivalence with the original version. It is necessary to continue research using Polish version of the ISAS to provide a constant verification of reliability and accuracy of the research tool.

Open access
Przegląd narzędzi diagnostycznych i metod pomiaru zespołu stresu pourazowego (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD) z możliwością wykorzystania wśród ratowników medycznych / Overview of diagnostic tools and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) measurement methods with the possibility of use among paramedics


The profession of a paramedic involves a constant contact with traumatic events - road accidents, disasters, acts of violence and so on. As a consequence of such frequent and long-lasting exposure to traumatic events, paramedics are prone to developing PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder). This is a chronic disorder impacting cognitive, emotional, behavioral and somatic experiences. As a result of a prolonged exposure to stressful events, such condition can be life threatening. There are two ways of diagnosing PTSD: structured interviews and self-rating questionnaires (self-rating scales). The researcher should choose the best method possible relying not only on its procedure. In addition, merit based factors and psychometric parameters should be taken into consideration. The present article provides an overview of both Polish as well as foreign PTSD assessment methods, which could be incorporated into the research conducted in a group of paramedics.

Open access