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  • Author: Bogdan Zygmunt x
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Open access

Tomasz Pokój, Zygmunt M. Gusiatin, Katarzyna Bułkowska and Bogdan Dubis

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of residual glycerine (5 and 10% w/w) from the biodiesel industry, used as a co-substrate, on biogas production from maize silage. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale, single-stage anaerobic digester at 39ºC and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60 d. Addition of 5% residual glycerine caused organic load rate (OLR) to increase to 1.82 compared with 1.31 g organic dry matter (ODM) L-1d-1 for maize silage alone. The specific biogas production rate and biogas yield were 1.34 L L-1d-1 and 0.71 L g ODM-1 respectively, i.e. 86% and 30% higher than for maize alone. Increasing the residual glycerine content to 10% increased OLR (2.01 g ODM L-1d-1), but clearly decreased the specific biogas production rate and biogas yield to 0.50 L L-1d-1 and 0.13 L g ODM-1 respectively. This suggested that 10% glycerine content inhibited methanogenic bacteria and organics conversion into biogas. As a result, there was accumulation of propionic and valeric acids throughout the experiment.

Open access

Anna Banel, Anna Jakimska, Marta Wasielewska and Bogdan Zygmunt

Distillation Cleanup Preceded GC Determination of Short-Chain Monocarboxylic Acids in Aqueous and Solid Samples of Wastewater Origin

Short-chain monocarboxylic acids (SCMAs) (C2-C5) formed in the process of aerobic biodegradation of larger organic molecules should often be monitored to optimize wastewater biological treatment and study the processes of converting organic waste matter into methane, etc. Gas chromatography (GC) seems a method of choice for such a task. Majority of samples require clean up before they can be injected into GC system. In this work a special refluxing apparatus is applied to concentrate and clean up the troublesome environment samples before injection into GC. To optimize separation of SCMAs in aqueous sample a special arrangement of two capillary columns, of very different polarity was used. The operational parameters of sample preparation were optimized and enrichment factors determined. The procedure developed was applied to determine SCMAs in troublesome aqueous and solid samples of wastewater treatment origin.

Open access

K. Motyl, M. Magier, J. Borkowski and B. Zygmunt

Abstract

A mathematical-physical model of the hypersonic anti-tank kinetic subcalibre projectile for 120 mm munition was built. Computer simulations of the projectile flight were performed for any angle of shooting, from 0° to 90°. Trajectories of projectile flights were determined considering all angles of shooting. Theoretical calculations were verified by experimental measurement of the projectile velocity in time while shooting on a test range. Some conclusions with regard to safety during hypersonic projectile shooting on the test range were formulated.

Open access

B. Zygmunt, K. Motyl, B. Machowski, M. Makowski and E. Olejniczak

Abstract

A mathematical-physical model of a supersonic missile was built, taking into account the mass and inertia properties. The model was implemented in the MathCAD14 simulation program. A numerical analysis of the missile ballistics was conducted and basic parameters were determined: range, altitude, velocity and acceleration, which enabled a test range program for manufactured missile models to be drawn up. Initial flight tests of missiles were carried out at the test range. Satisfactory accordance of experimental and theoretical dynamic parameters of the missile under study was obtained.

Open access

Piotr Micek, Zygmunt M. Kowalski, Bogdan Kulig and Jarosław Kański

Abstract

The aim of the work was to determine the effect of faba bean varieties and plant protection method on their yield of seeds and protein, chemical composition, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and nutritive value for ruminant feeding. The study was carried out on four cultivars of faba beans grown in similar environmental conditions in a two-factorial field experiment. The variation between cultivars, modified by the plant protection method, in chemical composition and IVTD of seeds may suggest that there would be a need to estimate its real nutritive value used for diet formulation instead of one common value for faba bean species read from feed tables. It was shown that lowtannin varieties are characterized by slightly higher CP and lower NDF content and significantly (P<0.01) higher IVTD digestibility compared to traditional or terminal inflorescence varieties. Regardless of type of faba been variety, the highest seed and protein yields were found when insecticides were applied, with minor effect on chemical composition and the nutritive value of seeds.

Open access

Janusz Wojdalski, Bogdan Dróżdż, Janusz Piechocki, Marek Gaworski, Zygmunt Zander and Jan Marjanowski

This paper analyzes the correlations between selected technical, process and production factors, equipment profiles and water consumption statistics in four types of dairy plants. Dairy plants were surveyed both individually and in groups. Water consumption was most highly correlated (r > 0.868) with equipment profiles. The highest water consumption was observed in dairy plants operating milk powder departments. In those plants, organization and production factors could significantly reduce water consumption levels because in addition to milk powder, those plants also supplied eight other products. The indicators of water consumption per unit of the final product were correlated (at 0.820 > | r | > 0.663) with equipment profiles, the degree of process automation and employment. Variations in water consumption per unit of the final product were best explained in small plants supplying several products. The presented equations can be used to optimize water demand of various types of equipment and to determine the correlations with energy consumption for wastewater treatment. Our results can contribute to the development of water consumption models in dairy plants and the implementation of clean production standards.