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Peng Wang and Bo Li

Several Differentiation Formulas of Special Functions. Part V

In this article, we give several differentiation formulas of special and composite functions including trigonometric, polynomial and logarithmic functions.

Open access

Bo Li and Na Ma

Integrability Formulas. Part I

In this article, we give several differentiation and integrability formulas of special and composite functions including the trigonometric function, and the polynomial function.

Open access

Bo Li and Peng Wang

Several Differentiation Formulas of Special Functions. Part IV

In this article, we give several differentiation formulas of special and composite functions including trigonometric function, polynomial function and logarithmic function.

Open access

Bo Li and Pan Wang

Several Differentiation Formulas of Special Functions. Part VI

In this article, we prove a series of differentiation identities [3] involving the secant and cosecant functions and specific combinations of special functions including trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Open access

Bo Li and Na Ma

Integrability Formulas. Part III

In this article, we give several differentiation and integrability formulas of composite trigonometric function.

Open access

Bo Li and Yanhong Men

Basic Properties of Even and Odd Functions

In this article we present definitions, basic properties and some examples of even and odd functions [6].

Open access

Bo Li

Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-12 family is a group of cytokines composed of heterogeneous molecules and whose members include IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35. IL-12 family bridges natural and adaptive immune responses and especially plays a significant role in classical adaptive immune process participated by TH1, TH17, and Treg cells. Members of IL-12 family participate in adaptive immune responses via the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway by sharing some subunits and receptors. IL-12 features an extremely complex regulatory network. During resistance of microbial infection, IL-12 and IL-23 mainly show inflammatory effects, whereas IL-27 and IL-35 commonly show antiinflammatory effects. This study reviews advances in studies related to IL-12 family members and infectious diseases and provides references to further reveal functions of IL-12 family members in occurrence and development of infectious diseases.

Open access

Jianjun Li and Ru Bo Zhang

Abstract

The multi-autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) distributed task allocation model of a contract net, which introduces an equilibrium coefficient, has been established to solve the multi-AUV distributed task allocation problem. A differential evolution quantum artificial bee colony (DEQABC) optimization algorithm is proposed to solve the multi-AUV optimal task allocation scheme. The algorithm is based on the quantum artificial bee colony algorithm, and it takes advantage of the characteristics of the differential evolution algorithm. This algorithm can remember the individual optimal solution in the population evolution and internal information sharing in groups and obtain the optimal solution through competition and cooperation among individuals in a population. Finally, a simulation experiment was performed to evaluate the distributed task allocation performance of the differential evolution quantum bee colony optimization algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the DEQABC algorithm converges faster than the QABC and ABC algorithms in terms of both iterations and running time. The DEQABC algorithm can effectively improve AUV distributed multi-tasking performance.

Open access

Bo Li, Sheng-Hua Li and Ann Wintle

Overcoming Environmental Dose Rate Changes in Luminescence Dating of Waterlain Deposits

This study investigates lacustrine and fluvial sediments on the Sala Us River in the Mu Us Desert in central north China. Significant changes in environmental dose rate in part of the section could be shown to have occurred from measurements of the present day radioactivity and by the age reversal for some samples that had been dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements on quartz. These changes in dose rate can be attributed to recent uptake of radioactive elements found in the sediments; this resulted in significant underestimation of the OSL ages. In this study, the new isochron method using K-feldspar grains has been applied to overcome the effects of changes in dose rate. Calculations are used to show that changes in the environmental dose rate factors, i.e. K, U, Th, water content and cosmic ray flux, and disequilibrium in the U and Th decay chains, e.g. radon escape, have a negligible effect on the isochron age. After applying the new isochron method, the effects of changes in dose rate caused by recent uptake of radioactive elements and changes in past water content were effectively overcome and true ages are obtained; this was verified by repeating the luminescence isochron measurements on samples of overlying and underlying sediments.

Open access

Binlong Li and Bo Ning

Abstract

Let G be a graph. Adopting the terminology of Broersma et al. and Čada, respectively, we say that G is 2-heavy if every induced claw (K 1,3) of G contains two end-vertices each one has degree at least |V (G)|/2; and G is o-heavy if every induced claw of G contains two end-vertices with degree sum at least |V (G)| in G. In this paper, we introduce a new concept, and say that G is S-c-heavy if for a given graph S and every induced subgraph G′ of G isomorphic to S and every maximal clique C of G′, every non-trivial component of G C contains a vertex of degree at least |V (G)|/2 in G. Our original motivation is a theorem of Hu from 1999 that can be stated, in terms of this concept, as every 2-connected 2-heavy and N-c-heavy graph is hamiltonian, where N is the graph obtained from a triangle by adding three disjoint pendant edges. In this paper, we will characterize all connected graphs S such that every 2-connected o-heavy and S-c-heavy graph is hamiltonian. Our work results in a different proof of a stronger version of Hu’s theorem. Furthermore, our main result improves or extends several previous results.