Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in veterinary medicine. They are used in pain control and in anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapies. Some NSAIDs, e.g piroxicam, also have a documented anticancer effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate which of the commonly used NSAIDs (etodolac, flunixin, tolfenamic acid, carprofen, and ketoprofen) are cytotoxic to the D-17 cell line of canine osteosarcoma.
Material and Methods
The viability of the cells was evaluated using the MTT assay. Four independent repetitions were performed and the results are given as the average of these values; EC50 values (half maximal effective concentration) were also calculated.
The analysis of results showed that carprofen and tolfenamic acid displayed the highest cytotoxicity. Other drugs either did not provide such effects or they were very poor. For carprofen, it was possible to determine an EC50 which fell within the limits of concentrations obtainable in canine serum after the administration of routinely used doses.
The results are promising but further studies should be conducted to confirm them, since this study is only preliminary. The possibility of introducing carprofen and tolfenamic acid into the routine treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs should be considered.
Aleksandra Pawlak, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Iwona Zbyryt and Andrzej Rapak
Introduction: Due to the high heterogeneity of canine lymphoma, the aim of the present study was to test in vitro the chemosensitivity of canine high-grade primary lymphoma cells to various cytostatic drugs commonly used to treat dogs: 4-HO-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, prednisolone, vincristine, etoposide, chlorambucil, lomustine, and cytosine arabinoside. Material and Methods: To determine the cell viability and drug ability to induce apoptosis two different tests were used: an MTT assay and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Results: Both in vitro tests were found to be useful tools. Significant differences in the sensitivity, depending on the drug type, between B-, T- and mixed/null-type lymphoma cells were found for the majority of the tested drugs. B-type cells were the most sensitive in vitro, whereas T-type cells seemed to be the most resistant. Doxorubicin, chlorambucil, etoposide, and vincristine most strongly reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis. Conclusion: In vitro assays, such as the MTT test and especially the annexin V/PI assay, may be useful tools for predicting a response to the treatment of high-grade lymphoma in dogs or improving the treatment outcomes in individual animals.