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  • Author: Bożena Gołębiowska x
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Boźena Gołębiowska, Adam Pieczka and Wojciech Franus

Olivenite-Adamite Solid Solution From Oxidation Zone in Rędziny (West Sudetes, Poland)

An extensive hydrothermal polymetallic mineralization with a well developed oxidation zone rich in secondary minerals occurs in dolostones several hundred meters from the Karkonosze granite at Rędziny. Using XRD and FTIR methods, mineral phases representing transitional members of the olivenite-adamite solid solution have been identified. Electron microprobe analyses reveal the most common varieties to be zincian olivenite and cuprous adamite with compositions ranging from (Cu1.17Zn0.83)(AsO4)(OH) to (Zn1.38Cu0.62)(AsO4)(OH). The two minerals are subordinate in the weathering zone which can be characterized as having been a zone of low Cu2+ and Zn2+ activity and with mineralizing solutions of increased pH. A high Ca2+ concentration due to the ubiquitous presence of carbonate rocks resulted in the expansion of the stability field of another arsenate, conichalcite (or Zn-bearing conichalcite), which is a common mineral there.

Open access

Bożena Gołębiowska, Grzegorz Rzepa and Adam Pieczka

Abstract

In the Permian rhyodacite quarry at Zalas near Krakow, southern Poland, thallium-bearing Mn oxides occur in a small fault zone cutting Middle Jurassic sandy limestone poorly encrusted by an oxidized polymetallic mineralization. The encrustation comprises sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, covellite, galena, marcasite), native bismuth, hematite, goethite, cuprite, mottramite, iodargyrite, unrecognized Cu sulphates and Bi oxychlorides as supergene minerals, barite and rare tiny grains of gold. It is most likely connected with rejuvenation of Early-Paleozoic faults during the Alpine orogeny on the Oligocene–Miocene boundary. Rare Tlbearing Mn oxides occur in an outside zone of the encrustations, filling small fractures and voids in limestone forming the fault breccia. Tl contents, reaching 20.82wt% as Tl2O, exceed by more than two orders of magnitude those reported in similar minerals before, making the oxides unique on a world scale. The Tl-bearing Mn oxides from Zalas reflect intensive weathering of an older Tl-bearing sulphide mineralization in an arid climate, involving saline fluids delivered to the groundwater system as the nappe structure of the Carpathians was developing during the Sava tectonic phase Oligocene/Miocene boundary.

Open access

Jarosław Majka, Mateusz P. Sęk, Stanisław Mazur, Bożena Gołębiowska and Adam Pieczka

Abstract

Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).

Open access

Jacek Matyszkiewicz, Alicja Kochman, Grzegorz Rzepa, Bożena Gołębiowska, Marcin Krajewski, Krzysztof Gaidzik and Jerzy Żaba

Abstract

A spectacular epigenetic silicification was encountered in the Oxfordian bedded limestones exposed in the Sokole Hills situated in the Krakow-Częstochowa Upland. The main epigenetic mineral is microcrystalline quartz accompanied by minor goethite, hematite, barite, galena and sphalerite. Locally, the mineralized limestones reveal Pb and Cu contents exceeding over 150 times the background values of these metals in unmineralized limestones.

The epigenetic mineralization of the bedded limestones was probably a two-stage process. During the first, Early Cretaceous stage, silicified limestones formed at the erosional surface of a denuded carbonate complex. Such silicification greatly limited the progress of the first karstification phase of the Upper Jurassic carbonates initiated in the Hauterivian. The sources of silica accumulated in the limestones were descending solutions enriched in silica derived from the weathering zone. This silicification affected the topmost part of the Upper Jurassic massive limestones and the deeper portions of the bedded limestones along the fracture systems and stylolites.

Early Cretaceous tectonic activity generated new dislocations and re-opened the existing faults, which were subsequently filled with permeable Albian quartz sands. These openings became the migration pathways for ascending, warm, relict, sulphide-carrying hydrothermal solutions at the second formation stage of the epigenetic mineralization. The newly supplied silica from the Albian sands precipitated on the silicified limestones and, as concentric rims, on brecciated, early diagenetic cherts. The second-stage mineralization proceeded under phreatic conditions, presumably close to a fluctuating mixing zone of ascending, warm hydrothermal solutions and descending cold groundwaters. The brecciated cherts acting as silica crystallization nuclei indicate that the last mineralization stage probably followed the final phase of Cenozoic faulting