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  • Author: Bożena Chuda-Mickiewicz x
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Open access

Krystyna Czekońska, Bożena Chuda-Mickiewicz and Paweł Chorbiński


A comparison was done of the volume of semen and viability of spermatozoa collected from drones at ages 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. The drones originated from different queens and were reared in different environments. Semen volume was determined by measuring the filled length of a capillary. Percentages of live and dead spermatozoa were determined by SYBR-14/propidium iodide fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. The volume of semen collected from drones ranged from 0.5 to 1.3 μL. The mean volume of semen significantly decreased with drone age. Sperm viability increased significantly with drone age.

Open access

Krystyna Czekońska and Bożena Chuda-Mickiewicz


The effectiveness of two methods of collecting semen from honeybee Apis mellifera drones was compared, and the reasons for problems with ejaculating semen were analysed. Among 275 drones, 100 were stimulated to release semen using a manual method, 100 with the use of chloroform, and from 75 drones the reproductive organs were dissected for analysis and evaluation. It was found that the principal causes of problems that drones had with ejaculating their semen were anatomical changes or a delay in the development of the mucus glands. It was also found that the method employing chloroform was less efficient in the first phase of eversion of the endophallus, compared with the manual method. The method with the use of chloroform allows the determination of the proportion of drones, which do not evert the endophallus because of poor or delayed development of mucus glands, as well as the proportion of drones which evert the organ, but do not ejaculate semen because of the absence of semen in the seminal vesicles.