Subalpine Beech Forest with Hairy Alpenrose (Polysticho Lonchitis-Fagetum Rhododendretosum Hirsuti Subass. Nova) on Mt. Snežnik (Liburnian Karst, Dinaric Mts)
Subalpine beech stands with Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendron hirsutum) were phytosociologically studied on Mt. Snežnik (Dinaric Mts). They thrived on stony and steep slopes of northern exposure. Comparisons with other subalpine Beech stands (Polysticho lonchitis-Fagetum s. lat.), Dinaric Fir-Beech stands with Hairy Alpen-rose (Omphalodo-Fagetum s. lat. rhododendretosum hirsuti), and prealpine fir-beech stands with Hairy Alpenrose (Homogyno sylvestris-Fagetum s. lat. rhododendretosum hirsuti), stands of Hairy Alpenrose and Beech (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum s. lat.), as well as Austrian subalpine beech stands (Saxifrago rotundifoliae-Fagetum s. lat.) showed their unique floristical composition due to ecological conditions, and thus distinct syntaxonomical position within the association Polysticho-Fagetum. Therefore, a new subassociation Polysticho-Fagetum rhododendretosum hirsuti subass. nova was described, and - as differential species for the subassociation - Rhododendron hirsutum, Rubus saxatilis, Rosa pendulina, and Clematis alpina were chosen.
The Association Drepanoclado Uncinati-Heliospermetum Pusilli (Arabidetalia Caeruleae, Thlaspietea Rotundifolii) in the Trnovski Gozd Plateau (Slovenia, NW Dinaric Mts)
The phytosociology and ecology of Heliosperma pusillum in freezing ravines of the Trnovski gozd plateau (Slovenia, NW Dinaric Mts) are discussed. The species thrive on shadowy, moist, cold and stable screes of boulders with long-lasting snow cover. The stands belonged to the association Drepanoclado uncinati-Heliospermetum pusilli (Salicion retusae, Arabidetalia caeruleae, Thlaspietea rotundifolii). Due to close proximity to the Julian Alps, the stands host a significant number of SE - Alpine and N-Illyrian species. Therefore, a new geographical variant Paederota lutea is described. Differential species for the geographical variant are Phyteuma scheuchzeri ssp. columnae, Valeriana saxatilis, Rhodothamnus chamaecistus, and Saxifraga cuneifolia. For less stable screes with smaller rocky particles a new subassociation salicetosum retusae is described, and the differential species for the subassociation are Salix retusa and Poa alpina. Stands of the association Drepanoclado-Heliospermetum var. geogr. Paederota lutea from the Trnovski gozd plateau are on the north-westernmost part of the distribution area of the Dinaric alliance Salicion retusae.
We conducted a phytosociological analysis of more than 250 relevés in the Julian Alps and compared them with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps and in the Dinaric Alps to describe the following new syntaxa of alpine swards and heathlands from the alliance Caricion firmae (class Elyno-Seslerietea): Saxifrago squarrosae-Caricetum mucronatae, Saussureo pygmaeae-Caricetum rupestris, Seslerio sphaerocephalae-Dryadetum octopetalae, Homogyno discoloris-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis, Saxifrago paniculatae-Caricetum fuliginosae and Homogyno discoloris-Loiseleurietum caricetosum firmae, the new association Achilleo clavennae-Elynetum myosuroidis from the alliance Oxytropido-Elynion and two new syntaxa from the alliance Loiseleurio-Vaccinion (class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea): Homogyno alpinae-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis and Empetro-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis rhododendretosum hirsuti. Many species that are rare, of conservation concern or protected in Slovenia occur in the newly described communities.
By means of a phytosociological analysis of 72 relevés of montane-subalpine shrub communities with dominating Rhododendron hirsutum, Salix waldsteiniana, S. glabra and S. appendiculata from the Julian Alps and the the Trnovski Gozd Plateau and by comparing them with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps and the Dinaric Alps we described a new association Laserpitio peucedanoidis-Salicetum waldsteinianae, a new subassociation Rhododendretum hirsuti vaccinietosum myrtilli, two new subassociations of the association Dryado-Rhodothamnetum chamaecisti that had recently been described in the Dolomites (-caricetosum firmae, -salicetosum waldsteinianae), as well as a new association Heliospermo pusillae-Rhododendretum hirsuti. We classified the glabrous willow community in the study area into a new association Homogyno sylvestris- Salicetum glabrae and proposed a new name - Rhododendro hirsuti-Salicetum appendiculatae for the large-leaved willow community, which we subdivided into two geographical variants: var. geogr. Paederota lutea (Julian Alps, Trnovski Gozd Plateau) and var. geogr. Hypericum grisebachii (Liburnian Karst).
We studied the phytosociology, ecology and biogeography of the Dinaric fir-beech stands (Omphalodo-Fagetum) in the Trnovski gozd plateau, at the north-western part of the Illyrian floral province. We identified and confirmed two geographical variants (var. geogr. Saxifraga cuneifolia - central and western part of the plateau, and var. geogr. Calamintha grandiflora - eastern part of the plateau), and 10 floristically and ecologically well differentiated subassociations (-rhododendretosum hirsuti,-saxifragetosum cuneifoliae, -adenostyletosum glabrae, -festucetosum altissimae, -calamagrostietosum arundinaceae, -stellarietosum montanae, -seslerietosum autumnalis, -calamagrostietosum variae, -sambucetosum nigrae and -asaretosum europei). The most frequent stands bellong to the subassociation -festucetosum altissimae and -calamagrostietosum arundinaceae, which, in terms of site ecology and floristic composition, represent the central forest types in the research area. They are floristically impoverished and lack majority of association’s characteristic species which is in line with the biogeographic peculiarites of the research area.
Phytosociological and numerical analyses of grasslands dominated by Sesleria juncifolia s.l. in Serbia were performed in order to resolve their syntaxonomy and nomenclature. Twelve releves were sampled on Mt. Mučanj (western Serbia), which were then compared with similar releves from other parts of the Balkan Peninsula by means of numerical analyses. The releves were classified using cluster analysis, while the ordination was conducted using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The results suggest the occurrence of two floristically well defined Dinaric associations in Serbia: Seslerio juncifoliae-Edraianthetum graminifolii ass. nova from Mt. Mokra Gora (Oxytropidion urumovii, Elyno-Seslerietea) and Diantho petraeae-Seslerietum juncifoliae ass. nova (Chrysopogono-Saturejion, Festuco-Brometea) from Mt. Mučanj.