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Thor Norström and Björn Trolldal

Abstract

AIM - A community intervention programme STAD was launched in Stockholm in January 1998, which included training in responsible beverage service and stricter enforcement of existing alcohol laws. An evaluation suggested that during the first 33 months of the programme, the level of police-recorded violence dropped by a striking 29%. We propose to probe the robustness of this estimate, which is often cited as evidence of the effectiveness of these kinds of intervention. In this paper, we reanalyse the underlying data by applying alternative model specifications. DATA AND METHODS - We reanalysed the original data on police-recorded violence from January 1994 to September 2000 by autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. We estimated models based on raw data and seasonally differenced data; we also varied the definition of control area and applied the statistical technique of difference-in-differences modelling. RESULTS - The estimated intervention effects from these model specifications were all strongly significant statistically, ranging between 21% and 32%. CONCLUSION - Estimates based on a variety of model specifications were generally somewhat lower than those previously reported. However, the new estimates were all strongly statistically significant and fairly uniform with regard to effect size, which suggests that the findings of a substantial impact of the STAD programme are indeed quite robust.

Open access

Ulrika Haggård, Björn Trolldal, Pia Kvillemo and Karin Guldbrandsson

Abstract

AIMS - The objective of this study was to identify factors that either promote or hinder implementation of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service programme in Swedish municipalities. DESIGN - Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted in six municipalities and directed content analysis, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), was performed. RESULTS - The CFIR framework was useful as an underlying theoretical model in this study. Importance of the following factors, described in the five domains of CFIR, was empirically supported in this study: local needs, evidence strength and advantages of the intervention, costs and available resources, clear goals, evaluation and feedback, access to knowledge and information, clear role definitions and cooperation, and enthusiastic key persons with high confidence in the effectiveness of the intervention. Hindering factors listed by the informants were lack of enthusiasm and opportunities to specialise, low degree of self-efficacy, unengaged decision-makers, complexities of the programme, and a top-down approach. CONCLUSIONS - This study indicates that previously identified factors shown to promote and hinder implementation processes are also valid in the context of multicomponent community action programmes like RBS. Suggestions on how to elude some of the hindering factors are proposed, e.g. to develop long-time financial plans, to provide better information about the RBS program in full, and to stress the importance of collaboration between representatives from the municipalities, police authorities and owners of on-licenced premises.

Open access

Ulrika Haggård, Björn Trolldal, Pia Kvillemo and Karin Guldbrandsson

Abstract

AIMS – The objective of this study was to identify factors that either promote or hinder implementation of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service programme in Swedish municipalities. DESIGN – Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted in six municipalities and directed content analysis, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), was performed. RESULTS – The CFIR framework was useful as an underlying theoretical model in this study. Importance of the following factors, described in the five domains of CFIR, was empirically supported in this study: local needs, evidence strength and advantages of the intervention, costs and available resources, clear goals, evaluation and feedback, access to knowledge and information, clear role definitions and cooperation, and enthusiastic key persons with high confidence in the effectiveness of the intervention. Hindering factors listed by the informants were lack of enthusiasm and opportunities to specialise, low degree of self-efficacy, unengaged decision-makers, complexities of the programme, and a top-down approach. CONCLUSIONS – This study indicates that previously identified factors shown to promote and hinder implementation processes are also valid in the context of multicomponent community action programmes like RBS. Suggestions on how to elude some of the hindering factors are proposed, e.g. to develop long-time financial plans, to provide better information about the RBS program in full, and to stress the importance of collaboration between representatives from the municipalities, police authorities and owners of on-licenced premises.