The incidence of twin gestation has increased over the past decades and contributes to an increased rate of spontaneous preterm birth and increased mortality and morbidity up to adult age. Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth in twin pregnancies differs from interventions in singleton pregnancies.
Up to now, many treatment modalities have been investigated such as bed rest, tocolytics, antibiotics, cerclage or progestagens, but have failed to prevent prematurity rates in twin gestations or were even combined with harmful effects. Cervical pessaries might be a non-invasive cost-effective option, but it is mandatory to evaluate vaginal progesterone and cervical pessaries in twin gestations with a short cervix in further randomized trials.
Katarzyna Leszczyńska, Krzysztof Preis, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Maciej Słodki, Dennis Wood, Stuart Weiner, Ulli Gembruch, Giusseppe Rizzo, Reuven Achiron, Jay D Pruetz, Mark Sklansky, Bettina Cuneo, Birgit Arabin, Isaac Blickstein and
Progress in the fields of fetal cardiology and fetal surgery have been seen not only in singleton pregnancies but also in multiple pregnancies. Proper interpretation of prenatal echocardiography is critical to clinical decision making, family counseling and perinatal management for obstetricians, maternal fetal medicine specialists, neonatologists and pediatric cardiologists. Fetal echocardiography is one of the most challenging and time-consuming prenatal examinations to perform, especially in multiple gestations. Performing just the basic fetal exam in twin gestations may take an hour or more. Thus, it is not practical to perform this exam in all cases of multiple gestations. Therefore our review and recommendations are related to fetal echocardiography in twin gestation.