This study aimed to characterise the effects of ketosis on milk yield and composition and digestive capacity in transition dairy cows.
Material and Methods
Seven ketotic and seven healthy cows were housed in individual stalls for six days. Samples of plasma, milk, refused total mixed ration, and faeces were collected, and the blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, and faecal dry matter (FDM) production were determined.
Compared with healthy cows, the ketotic cows had significantly higher concentrations of milk fat and citrate, but lower levels of milk protein and lactose. The cows exhibited a need for acid detergent fibre in forage and better digestion of neutral detergent fibre, starch, crude protein, and phosphorus than healthy cows, but more fat and gross energy were excreted in their faeces. Ketotic cows had higher energy-corrected milk yields and lower FDM than healthy cows.
Lower feed intake coinciding with the requirement to maintain high milk production is considered to be the cause of ketosis in dairy cows. Ketotic cows exhibited lower dry matter fat digestion.
Chongjian Fu, Xuelei Huang, Liang Zhang, Bingbing Yu, Gang Sun, Wenwen Li, Juan Ding and Rongfa Bu
Background: Mandibular movements are reliable indicators of mandibular system disease and changes in movements can be useful to estimate treatment effect. Detection of mandibular movement is important.
Objectives: We evaluated four-dimensional (4D) visualization of mandibular and temporomandibular joint movement using 320-row computed tomography (CT).
Methods: A stepwise mouth gag was placed between mandibular and maxillary incisors to control mouth opening (0.5-cm increments) in healthy volunteers and one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patient. A 320-row CT Joint-Move and Shot sequence was used for scanning with an image taken after each increment. 4D reconstruction was used to establish volume data.
Results: 4D visualization of joint and dentition in a rest state and in a state of mandibular movement from multiple angles and in different planes demonstrated differences between healthy subjects and the subject with TMD. The effective dose per scan was approximately 17% of the 16-slice spiral CT.
Conclusion: 4D visualization of mandibular movement can be achieved through 320-row volume CT, which may provide a diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorder and assessment of treatment effects.