Ji-bin Ye, Chuan-Song Hu, Tai-Sheng Li and Li Fang
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), a new disease of zoonotic natural foci has been increasing in recent years. In this review, the disease of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infection due to tickborne and new Bunia virus infection, have similar clinical symptoms. Total of 11 articles were retrieved. The emergence, etiology, nomenclature and pathogenic mechanisms, clinical diagnosis and genotyping of SFTS were summarized, and the current situation of treatment was also evaluated. In conclusion, early detection, identification and treatment are the key points to SFTS, but how to reduce the mortality of critically ill patients is still the focus in the future.
Analytical fault detection algorithms have the potential to reduce the size, power and weight of safety-critical aerospace systems. Analytical redundancy has been successfully applied in many non-safety critical applications. However, acceptance for aerospace applications will require new methods to rigorously certify the impact of such algorithms on the overall system reliability. This paper presents a theoretical method to assess the probabilistic performance for an analytically redundant system. Specifically, a fault tolerant actuation system is considered. The system consists of dual-redundant actuators and an analytical fault detection algorithm to switch between the hardware components. The exact system failure rate per hour is computed using the law of total probability. This analysis requires knowledge of the failure rates for the hardware components. In addition, knowledge of specific probabilistic performance metrics for the fault detection logic is needed. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the proposed analysis method.
Baoquan Hu, Bin Wang, Chunguo Wang, Wenqin Song and Chengbin Chen
Triploidy is a widespread phenomenon in cultivated and natural breeding plants and it can confer some growth advantages. Here, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in triploid Populus euramericana (black poplar) using the Affymetrix poplar microarray to detect any possible correlation between triploid vigor and a unique gene expression profile. Among the 38,400 transcripts that were detected in triploid poplar, 1,564 and 2,015 genes were up- or downregulated, respectively, compared with the diploid. The majority of the upregulated genes in the triploid were associated with carbon and nitrogen metabolism, especially lignin and secondary metabolism. Other genes upregulated in the triploid included genes involved in sugar transport, and brassinosteroid (BR) and auxin metabolism. Downregulated genes were mostly related to the assembly and biosynthesis of ribosomes and the nucleosome macromolecular complex. The results suggested that BR and auxin levels were crucial in controlling sugar transport, photosynthesis and cell wall biosynthesis. Downregulated genes were associated with chromatin regulation in the triploid. The information from this analysis could provide an insight into the vigor of triploid poplar.
Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.
Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.
Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.
Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.