This work examines the historical context and implications of the accounts on nonhuman primates reported in the Histoire Naturelle des Indes, circa 1586. It is a fundamental document for the understanding of Caribbean natural history. It shows color illustrations and descriptions of different animals, including primates such as Sapajus flavius (or S. apella cf. margaritae.), Callithrix sp., and Alouatta palliata. This document offers early reports of monkeys in the circum-Caribbean region.