The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of leptospires from the Sejroe serogroup in aborting seropositive sows and to identify which serovars of this serogroup are responsible for the infection. Serum and urine samples from 20 aborting sows, reared in five farms infected with the Sejroe serogroup, were submitted for examination. Serum samples were examined by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and urine samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer sets specific for genus Leptospira, species L. borgpetersenii, the Sejroe serogroup, and the Hardjo-bovis genotype. All the examined serum samples showed titres specific to the Sejroe serogroup, ranging from 100 to 6400. PCR indicated the presence of Leptospira genus-specific DNA sequences in all urine samples examined. DNA sequences specific for both L. borgpetersenii and the Sejroe serogroup were found in 12 of these samples. Additionally, the sequences specific only for L. borgpetersenii were found in five urine samples and sequences for the Sejroe serogroup in two samples. The DNA sequence specific for the Hardjo-bovis genotype was not found in the urine samples. PCR confirmed the results of the MAT, displayed the presence of Leptospira sp. DNA in the urine of all the sows examined, proved the affinity of the detected leptospires to the Sejroe serogroup or at least to L. borgpetersenii, and excluded the Hardjo serovar as the reason for the infections described in the sows.
The aim of the study was a preliminary determination of occurrence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli) in raw meat samples collected from slaughter-houses located in different regions of Poland. A total of 141 samples were tested, comprising 78 pork samples, 44 beef samples, and 19 chicken meat samples. Isolated and identified E. coli strains were examined for the ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamases production by the use of four disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration tests. All strains positive in one or both tests were examined by PCR for the presence of the blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2 group genes. During the study, 154 E. coli strains were isolated from 95 samples. Among these, 18 (11.7%) strains were identified in phenotypic tests as ESBL-producing and seven (4.5%) strains as AmpC-positive. The presence of the genes encoding selected ESBL-s (TEM, CTX, SHV) was identified in 14 of the strains recognised as ESBLpositive in phenotypic tests. All AmpC-positive isolates showed the presence of the CMY-2 group encoding genes. One of these strains had also the CTX-M and TEM genes, and four of them expressed the TEM marker.
In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (18 strains) or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains) were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains) was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin
The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group) for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.
Blood serum samples collected from randomly selected groups of 32 pigs and 41 cows reared in farms belonging to the rural community “A” located in eastern Poland and exposed to the Vistula river floods, and serum samples from groups of 41 pigs and 40 cows from farms belonging to the rural community “B” located also in eastern Poland but not in the area exposed to floods, were examined by the microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against 18 Leptospira serovars. The percentage of serum samples presenting positive results with at least one serovar were higher in pigs and cows from community “A” comparing to community “B” (34.4% vs. 4.9% and 26.8% vs. 15.0%, respectively). In the case of pigs, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0015). The reactions with 12 Leptospira serovars (Australis, Bataviae, Bratislava, Canicola, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Poi, Cynopteri, Grippotyphosa, Celledoni,), belonging to four species (L. interrogans, L.borgpetersenii, L. kirschneri, L. weili) were found in the examined animals. In community “B”, six reactions with one serovar and two reactions with two serovars were noted whereas in community “A” - 19 reactions with one serovar, one reaction with two serovars and two reactions with six serovars were observed. The titres in animals reared in community “A” were significantly higher (up to 25,600) compared to community “B” (up to 200, P=0.0094). The obtained results suggest that the exposure to flooding may increase the infection rate in pigs and cows from afflicted areas to some extent.