The aim of the study was to determine whether long-term intensive cultivation that used variable ploughing and fertilisation technologies and schemes influences the differentiation of soil properties which may impact the results of growing experiments in a relatively small experimental field (0.1 ha). The field under study is located in Wrocław, in an agricultural experimental station that has been operating for more than 60 years. A transformation of rusty gleyic soils (Brunic Gleyic Arenosols) into anthropogenic black earths (Gleyic Phaeozems (Arenic)) was noticed. The content of organic carbon and nitrogen, pH and the content of exchangeable base cations in the plough layer were positively (statistically and spatially) correlated and their increased values were observed in soils with a deeper and darker plough level. The present differentiation of the physical and chemical properties of soils in the experimental field do not result from such primary soil-forming factors as a kind and texture of parent material, topography, moisture regime, or (micro-)climatic conditions, which are not differentiated within the field, but from various intensity of former cultivation on individual sections of the experimental field. The variability cśfficient of the crucial soil properties was found to exceed 30%, which might significantly influence the results of micro-plot vegetation experiments.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of pH on arsenic solubility in soils heavily contaminated by the former arsenic industry. For the purpose of the study, three soil samples were collected from the area affected by ore processing in Złoty Stok. Soils differed in initial pH, calcium carbonate content, organic matter content and total arsenic concentration. The amounts of arsenic released from soils at various pH were measured using extraction tests, where soil samples were shaken with various doses of HCl and NaOH in the presence of 0.01 mol • dm−3 CaCl2 as the background solution. Arsenic solubility in soils was considerably low at neutral or slightly acidic pH and increased considerably in both strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. The importance of these effects for environmental risk was discussed.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate that alluvial sediments of Wrocław ice-marginal Valley are characterized by higher con-centrations of metallic elements in relation to the adjacent areas of different soil cover genesis.
Studies of zinc and arsenic content in soils were carried out in six municipalities of Średzki district. A total of 117 soil samples from arable land was collected: 80 from Średzka Upland and 37 from Wrocław ice-marginal Valley
The process of accumulation of heavy metals in alluvial sediments in the Wocław ice-marginal Valley is so effective that, despite the heavier grain size composition of the soil cover immediately adjacent to Średzka Upland, zinc and arsenic concentrations are higher in the alluvial soils.
Analysis of the top-soil total content of heavy metals was carried out inthe vicinity of large copper ore tailings pound in the south-western Poland with regard to soil properties, direction and distance from the tailings pound. None of the soils under study ex-ceeded the limits admitted in the official standards for soil quality, but the assessment made in accordance with IUNG-guidelines to soil contamination determination showed that more than half of the monitoring sites have elevated metal content, Cu, in par-ticular. The results confirmed high effectiveness of dust control preventing its eolian spread from the tailings pound.
The aim of this study was to check whether the addition of waste rock dust to the soil contaminated with zinc will improve the yield of reed canary grass and reduce excessive amounts of zinc in its biomass. The study was carried out in the micro-plots made of concrete, as a two-factorial experiment, in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates. The first factor of the experiment was the level of soil contamination with zinc: 1) Zn0 - the soil with natural Zn concentration; 2) Zn1 - 200; 3) Zn2 - 400; 4) Zn3 - 800 mg/kg soil. The second factor was the level of remediation: 1) control, without remediation, 2) with remediation (rock dust applied at the rate 3 kg • m-2). The results of the study indicate that application of waste rock dust can improve the conditions of reed canary grass growth in the soil contaminated with zinc. At the highest level of contamination (Zn3), soil amendment with rock dust resulted in increased yields of reed canary grass dry matter, in two crops, by 136 and 176%, respectively, as compared with corresponding control objects without dust addition. At the same time, the concentrations of zinc in the plants grown in the soil amended with dust were about 16% lower, and the soluble forms of this element in soil, determined in extraction with 1 mol HCl • dm-3, were about 25% lower, as compared with control plots.
The purpose of this research was to examine whether the addition of waste rock dust to light soil contaminated with nickel will increase the yields of cultivated plants and reduce their excessive nickel content. The research was conducted in concrete microplots of 1 m2 dimension in the complete randomisation system, as a twofactor experiment in four replications. The first factor was the level of soil contamination: (1) Ni0 - soil with natural Ni content; (2) Ni1 - 100; (3) Ni2 - 150 and (4) Ni3 - 270 mg • kg-1 of the soil. The second factor was the level of remediation: (1) control without remediation and (2) rock dust at a dose of 3 kg • m-2. The test results indicate that the use of waste rock dust can improve growth conditions of reed canary grass on the soil contaminated with nickel, in the first year of its cultivation. Addition of rock dust to the soil contaminated with nickel 150 mg • kg-1 caused an increase in tolerance of reed canary grass to nickel (tolerance index) from 0.55 to 0.77. There was an increase in the yield of biomass of aerial parts and a decrease in the concentration of nickel in plants growing in soils with the addition of dust.