This article focuses on people’s beliefs about how other people’s political attitudes are shaped and examines how the hypothesis of a third-person effect is related to non-mediated sources of information such as personal experience and interpersonal communication. Also presented are results on the perceived impact of different media such as television, newspapers and political advertising. A representative sample of the Swedish population answered a national survey during the period November - December 2001, and the results show general support for a third-person effect. Mediated information sources and interpersonal communication are believed to influence others more than oneself. Personal experience, on the other hand, is believed to be more important for oneself than for other people, and first-person effects were found among people with a high level of education or a strong political interest. Thus, one conclusion is that people tend to believe their own picture of politics is more dependent on personal experience and that others’ political attitudes are more dependent on mass media or people in their social environment.
This article proposes and explores the notion of “media micro-generations”. Based on a survey of values and norms in relation to media-related behaviour in Sweden, we identify statistically significant media micro-generations. Through an analysis of the technologies that were introduced during the formative years of different media micro-generations, we propose that media micro-generations are formed with the introduction of new media technologies. Thus, the existence of media micro-generations illustrates how rapid transformations of media technologies can shape the moral notions of narrow age groups. It also explains why many earlier studies have detected a rather large span of years (1970–1985, in between the TV generation and the internet generation) during which no generational identity seems to have been formed.
Research on the PR-function is extensive, especially in the US and the UK. The managertechnician dichotomy is well known, but has been challenged by recent research where more nuanced perspectives on PR-managerial roles are displayed. In relation to this complexity of PR-managerial roles the article investigates the function and role Swedish public relations managers perform and play in their organizations. The Swedish case, with its high proportion of PR practitioners employed by public authorities, was used to further explore the complexity of PR work. The empirical data was a survey distributed to a random sample of members of the Swedish Public Relations Association, with a managerial or head/ director position, representing all industry/societal sectors. 261 persons completed the survey, giving a response rate of 30 percent. The study confirmed previous research of a more complex picture of the PR-managerial level. One important conclusion was therefore that the simple dichotomy between managers and technicians cannot be used to understand managerial level positions in the public relations context. This complexity was even further emphasized when comparing PR-mangers in the private and the public sector. One challenge pointed out for future research was to develop analyses of PR managerial roles in different types of organizations.
This study analyzes and compares party ads that were broadcast on television during the 2009 European Election campaign in France, Germany, Sweden and the UK. Even though electoral TV ads have never reached the same importance in European countries as in the US, such ads are to be regarded as an expression of the specific political culture of a country and therefore have relevance beyond election campaigns. An international comparison of ads produced for the same event is particularly suited to revealing similarities across cultures as well as national idiosyncrasies. Additionally, the present study demonstrates a methodological approach that defines a ‘sequence’ as the unit of analysis instead of the whole spot, and thus it is different from previous research on electoral advertising.
The present article investigates two questions: What determines citizens’ use of different media to seek information in a crisis situation, and what influences their evaluation of the information found. The case analysed is a major fire at a chemical storage facility in the harbour of Halmstad in Sweden, where there was a risk of toxic fumes reaching the city and its approximately 60,000 inhabitants. The study is part of a larger project, financed by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and in this part, focus group interviews are analysed. The results point to an interaction between citizens’ perception of the world, the perceived information, and the development of how the situation is regarded, where sensemaking is the pivotal concept.