The main constituents of the genus Sideritis are various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins, flavonoid aglycones and glycosides. Sideritis species have been traditionally used as infusions or flavoring agents and in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic and analgesic agents. This paper includes the following sections: Introduction, Description and distribution of Sideritis spp, Pharmacological effects, Toxicity tests, Rationale for use of Sideritis spp. in ophthalmology and Conclusions. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview on the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus Sideritis, and to establish the scientific basis of its pharmacological use. New approaches to using officinal plants have recently yielded significant results. The paper also reviews this information and provides a critical view on the options for exploiting the potential of Sideritis spp. in ophthalmology.