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Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma and Aliyu Jauro

Abstract

The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification), and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ) and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ) – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV) for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ) coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ) coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C), devolatilization (200-600 °C), and char decomposition (600-1000 °C). The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

Open access

Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma

Abstract

This study seeks to characterize the thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH) as a potential biomass feedstock for clean energy and power generation. It examined the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition of MSH. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was examined at 5, 10, 20 °C/min from 30-800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) was applied to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, A. The results revealed that thermal decomposition of MSH occurs in three (3) stages; drying (30-150 °C), devolatization (150-400 °C) and char degradation (400-800 °C). Kinetic analysis revealed that the E values fluctuated from 145.44-300 kJ/mol (Average E = 193 kJ/mol) while A ranged from 2.64 × 1010 to 9.18 × 1020 min-1 (Average E = 9.18 × 1019 min-1) highlighting the complexity of MSH pyrolysis. The fuel characterization and kinetics of MSH showed it is an environmentally friendly solid biofuel for future thermal biomass conversion.

Open access

Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma and Aliyu Jauro

Abstract

The paper examined physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the newly discovered Garin Maiganga (GMG) coal from Nigeria. The physicochemical characterization comprised of elemental, proximate, calorific value, and classification (rank) analyses. Thermal analysis was examined using combined Thermogravimetric (TG) and Derivative Thermogravimetric analyses (DTG). Hence, the coal was heated from 30°C to 1000°C at 20°C/min under inert conditions to examine its thermal degradation behaviour and temperature profile characteristics (TPC). The results indicated that the GMG coal fuel properties consist of low Ash, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content. Moisture content was > 5%, Volatile Matter > 50%, Fixed Carbon > 22%, and Heating Value (HHV) 23.74 MJ/kg. Based on its fuel properties, the GMG coal can be classified as a Sub-Bituminous B, non-agglomerating low rank coal (LRC). The GMG coal TPCs – onset, peak, and offset temperatures – were 382.70°C, 454.60°C, and 527.80°C, respectively. The DTG profile revealed four (4) endothermic peaks corresponding to loss of moisture (drying), volatile matter (devolatization), and coke formation. The residual mass Rm was 50.16%, which indicates that higher temperatures above 1000°C are required for the complete pyrolytic decomposition of the GMG coal. In conclusion, the results indicate that the GMG coal is potentially suitable for future utilization in electric power generation and the manufacture of cement and steel.

Open access

Tertsegha John-Paul Ivase, Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma, Blessing Uwere Ogenyi, Adinoyi David Balogun and Muhammed Nuraddeen Hassan

Abstract

The toxicity, persistence, and non-biodegradability of chemical pesticides have increased calls for the adoption of sustainable and cost-effective pest control measures. Biopesticides present a sustainable alternative to synthetic pesticides. However, the biopesticide utilization in agrarian countries like Nigeria remains low, resulting in increased chemical pesticide utilization. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the current status, challenges, and prospects of biopesticides in Nigeria. The findings revealed that biopesticide utilization in Nigeria is low due to high costs, poor infrastructure, skilled manpower alongside inconsistent field performance and government policies. The solution to these challenges will significantly boost crop protection, food security, and sustainable agriculture in Nigeria.