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Beata Schmidt


Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers (AAm/AA) have been synthesized by microemulsion polymerization in absence and presence of trivalent cations Al+3 and Fe+3. Starch materials were obtained by introducing cations Al+3 and Fe+3, in the form of aqueous solutions of sulphates(VI) (modif. starch/Me+3), into the oxidized starch (modif. starch). The flocculation performance of obtained polyacrylamide copolymers and the one based on the natural polymer was compared with the performance of the commercial AAm/AA flocculant (CF). All materials were characterized by capillary viscometry, FTIR and DSC methods. An aqueous suspension of talc was used for the flocculation studies. The flocculation effectiveness was evaluated on the basis of reduction of suspension extinction and the sludge volume. It was found that synthesized AAm/AA/Me+3 copolymers and modif. starch/Me+3 materials exhibit better flocculation properties for a model talc suspension than a commercially available floculant.

Open access

Magdalena Zdanowicz, Beata Schmidt and Tadeusz Spychaj

Starch graft copolymers as superabsorbents obtained via reactive extrusion processing

Starch graft copolymers have been obtained via grafting of acrylic monomers i.e. acrylamide (AAm) and acrylic acid (AA) during the reactive extrusion processes. 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was used as a radical initiator and N'N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), mixture of pentaerythritol triacrylate and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (trade name PETIA) and alkoxylated pentaerithritol acrylate (trade name Ebecryl 40) were applied as acrylic crosslinkers. The obtained materials were characterized by FTIR and their water sorption properties investigated using swelling (vol. %) and sorption (wt. %) tests. Sorption of water into these graft copolymer samples reached values of ca. 6-13 g of water per g of dry materials. It was also found that water sorption values were dependent on ratio of AAm and AA as well as on a type of the applied crosslinking agent.

Open access

Agnieszka Drzycimska, Beata Schmidt and Tadeusz Spychaj

Modified acrylamide copolymers as flocculants for model aqueous suspensions

Two groups of acrylamide copolymers have been obtained by inverse microemulsion polymerization using: (i) acrylamide (AAm) with [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (AETAC) in the presence of sodium montmorillonite (MMT), and (ii) acrylamide with acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of aluminum sulphate. The received materials were characterised by capillary viscometry and the DSC methods, as well as the flocculation performances of the modified copolymers in the treatment of aqueous model suspensions of talc and calcium montmorillonite have been investigated. The effectiveness of the acrylamide flocculants was evaluated on the basis of the suspension extinction reduction and the sludge volume. The obtained results have been compared while using the modified materials and appropriate anionic and cationic AAm copolymers.

Open access

Beata Zielińska, Beata Schmidt, Ewa Mijowska and Ryszard Kaleńczuk


A PANI/NaTaO3 composite was successfully synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in hydrochloric acid solution containing sodium tantalate. NaTaO3 at a monoclinic structure was produced via hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic activities of the unmodified NaTaO3 and PANI/NaTaO3 were evaluated for hydrogen generation from an aqueous HCOOH solution and under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the evolution rate of H2 increased significantly when NaTaO3 was modified with PANI. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of PANI/NaTaO3 composite was ascribed to the effective charge transfer and separation between NaTaO3 and PANI, which reduced their recombination. This indicates that PANI modification of tantalate photocatalysts may open up a new way to prepare highly efficient catalytic materials for H2 generation.

Open access

Erzsebet Varga, Ibolya Schmidt, Beáta Szövérfi, Mădălina Daniela Pop, Hajnal Kelemen and Anita Tóth


Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the content of polyphenols and flavonoids from sixteen selected medicinal plants from the spontaneous Romanian flora and fifteen tinctures obtained with propylene glycol.

Methods: The polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method while the flavonoids by using a colorimetric method from the 10th edition of the Romanian Pharmacopoeia. The antioxidant activities of the most common nine medicinal plants and fifteen tinctures were determined by DPPH and ABTS methods.

Results: The results highlighted that the phenolic compounds and flavonoids have contributed to their antioxidant activities and the medicinal plants and tinctures included in the study are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

Conclusions: There are a wide variety of extraction methods for the determination of phenolics and flavonoids. The study confirms a correlation between phenolic and flavonoid contents obtained by using the DPPH and ABTS tests.