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Beata Rutkowska and Wiesław Szulc

Abstract

The changes of the concentration of Cu and Zn in the soil solution and the percentage of particular forms of these elements in the soil solution were investigated in the long-term fertilization experiment. The soil solution was obtained following the vacuum displacement method. Speciation of copper and zinc ions was determined with MINTEQA2 for Windows software. The results of the investigation indicated that exclusive mineral fertilization (NPK) caused an increase of Cu and Zn concentration in the soil solution. Organic fertilization (FYM) resulted in a decrease of Cu and an increase of Zn concentration in the soil solution. Liming limited mobility of both analysed elements. The results of speciation analysis showed that regardless of the fertilization mode, the organo-mineral complexes are the main form of Cu occurring in soil solution. The percentage of Cu-DOC complexes ranges from 76.5 to 85.2% of the total concentration of Cu in the soil solution. The particular forms of copper can be sorted depending on the percentage in the soil solution as follows: Cu-DOC>Cu2+>Cu-CO3. The main form of Zn in the soil solution are active Zn2+ ions. The share of Zn2+ in total zinc concentration in the soil solution ranged from 76.9% to 86.4%. Forms of zinc in the soil solution can be arranged with regard to their percentage as follows: Zn2+>Zn-DOC>ZnCl+>ZnHCO3 +.

Open access

Katarzyna Kajka and Beata Rutkowska

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the levels of selected trace elements in soils and in the common dandelion depending on the distance from a traffic route. The study was conducted in Warsaw near one of the main roads in the suburb of Ursynów. Samples for testing were taken from the 0–25 cm layer at sites located directly alongside the roadway and at a distance of 30, 60 and 300 m from its edge. The amounts of Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in the soils were determined by the AAS method, after extraction in HCl at a concentration of 1 mol·dm−3, and in the aboveground parts and roots of dandelion plants after wet mineralization in a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 by the AAS method. On the basis of the results obtained, it was shown that the concentrations of the tested metals, both in the soils and in the biomass of the test plant, were highest directly at the edge of the roadway and decreased significantly with the distance away from the road. This correlation indicates a significant impact of road transport on heavy metal levels in the environment bordering a traffic route. It was also shown that dandelion plants accumulate higher amounts of heavy metals in the aboveground parts than in the roots, and the heavy metal contents in the dandelion biomass were found to be significantly positively correlated with the amounts of these elements in the soils.

Open access

Izabela Tałałaj, Beata Ostrowiecka, Ewa Włostowska, Agnieszka Rutkowska and Emilia Brzosko

Abstract

The breeding system in Orchidaceae generates many questions about the selfing potential of its representatives. We investigated the ability of spontaneous autogamy of four orchid species: Cephalanthera rubra and Neottia ovata of the Neottieae tribe and Gymnadenia conopsea and Platanthera bifolia of the Orchideae tribe. These species represent diverse specializations of the gynostemium architecture. The self-compatibility and properties of autogamous seeds were determined in a bagging experiment and seed development analysis. After induced autogamy, a high level of fruiting (80-100%) was noted in all of the four study species. C. rubra, N. ovata, and G. conopsea are completely self-compatible, and P. bifolia is suggested to be partially self-compatible. If autogamy occurred, inbreeding depression and resource limitation on seed development appeared only in the two Orchideae species. Independent of flower specialization, both Neottieae species and P. bifolia were completely allogamous, whereas G. conopsea could be facultatively autogamous.