The nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) are used in many electronic equipment, like cell phones, computers, cameras as well as hybrid cars. Spent batteries can be a rich source of many metals, especially rare earth elements (REE), such as lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), samarium (Sm), gadolinium (Gd). Ni-MH batteries also contain iron (Fe) as well as non-ferrous metals, i.e. nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), etc. Leaching of such waste with sulfuric acid solutions is one among many methods recovering of useful metals in hydrometallurgical processes. The main aim of this work was separation of metal ions from pregnant leach liquor (PLL) by solvent extraction using phosphorous compounds and ionic liquids (ILs). The initial pH of the aqueous solution was 0.1. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), bis (2,2,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272), and phosphoniumionic liquid – trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate (Cyphos IL 104) were used as the selective extractants. The initial concentration of the extractants in an organic phase was equal to 0.1 mol∙dm−3. The obtained results show that the highest extraction efficiency was obtained for Fe(III) and Zn(II) in extraction experiments with 0.1 M D2EHPA at pH of 0.1. Ni(II), Co(II) and REE remained in the aqueous solutions. In the next stage, REE were extracted with the mixture of 0.1 M Cyanex 272 and 0.1 M Cyphos IL 104 at pH equal to 3.8. Finally, Ni(II) and Co(II) ions were efficiently removed from the aqueous phase using 0.1 M solution of Cyphos IL 104 at pH around 5.4.
In this work the selective transport of cobalt(II) and lithium(I) ions from aqueous chloride solutions through polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) is presented. Triisooctylamine (TIOA) has been applied as the ion carrier in membrane. The effects of various parameters on the transport of Co(II) and Li(I) were studied. The obtained results show that Co(II) ions were effectively removed from source phase through PIM containing 32 wt.% TIOA, 22 wt.% CTA (cellulose triacetate) and 46 wt.% ONPOE (o-nitrophenyl octyl ether) or ONPPE (o-nitrophenyl pentyl ether) into deionized water as the receiving phase. The results indicate that there is a possibility of polymer inclusion membranes application to recover Co(II) and Li(I) from aqueous chloride solutions
Polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing cellulose triacetate (CTA) as a polymer matrix and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as a plasticizer was developed. This membrane also contained di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the carriers of metal ions. The facilitated transport of lanthanum(III) from aqueous nitrate(V) solutions across PIM was studied. It was observed that metal ions were transported from the source phase into 2M H2SO4 as the receiving phase. The transport through PIM with D2EHPA as the ion carrier was found as the more effective method of lanthanum(III) removal from the aqueous solution than transport through PIM with TBP as the ion carrier.
The growing industrial application of rare earth metals led to great interest in the new technologies for the recycling and recovery of REEs from diverse sources. This work reviews the various methods for the recycling of spent fluorescent lamps. The spent fluorescent lamps are potential source of important rare earth elements (REEs) such as: yttrium, terbium, europium, lanthanum and cerium. The characteristics of REEs properties and construction of typical fl uorescent lamps is described. The work compares also current technologies which can be utilized for an efficient recovery of REEs from phosphors powders coming from spent fluorescent lamps. The work is especially focused on the hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. It was concluded that hydrometallurgical processes are especially useful for the recovery of REEs from spent fluorescent lamps. Moreover, the methods used for recycling of REEs are identical or very similar to those utilized for the raw ores processing.
Marzena Zając, Krystyna Palka, Beata Mikołajczak and Edward Pospiech
Tenderness is usually associated with the proteolysis occurring in muscles. However, most of the studies concentrate on one muscle only. The aim of this study was to describe the changes in myofibrillar protein percentage proportions during the ageing of 8 bovine muscles. Investigations were conducted on the muscles from different parts of the carcass, from the forequarter: m. pectoralis profundus, m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii, m. serratus ventralis, and from the hindquarter: m. biceps femoris, m. semimembranosus, m. semitendinosus and m. longissimus dorsi (thoracis et lumborum). The effect of muscle type was significant for all parameters except for percentage proportions of titin (3000÷3700 kDa), MHC (205 kDa) and protein fractions between <205÷42> kDa. Differences between the muscles varied depending on the analysed proteins and the time of storage. A significant effect of ageing time for titin, nebulin (approx. 800 kDa), proteins of molecular weight of 38 kDa, proteins smaller than 42 kDa and in the range of 3000÷205 kDa, 205÷42 kDa and 38÷20 kDa was observed. The decrease of percentage proportions of titin, nebulin and proteins in the range of 3000÷205 kDa and an increase of protein bands in the range of 38÷20 kDa and proteins below 42 kDa was also observed. During the storage period of beef from the 2nd to the 14th day, the progress of myofibrillar proteolysis was different in each muscle. The changes of tenderness were not related to shear force values. It is probable that the changes in other constituents of meat might influence the tenderness more than those in myofibrillar proteins.