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Open access

Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska, Beata Nowak and Łukasz Słomski

Wiedza rodziców na temat wad postawy ciała

Wady postawy ciała stanowią poważny problem społeczny. Gwałtowny rozwój technicyzacji doprowadził do ograniczenia aktywności fizycznej także wśród najmłodszych, co przejawia się masowo występującymi zaburzeniami postawy. Dlatego właśnie tak bardzo istotne jest zwiększanie świadomości rodziców odnośnie do zagrożeń wynikających z nieprawidłowości postawy ciała, znaczenia aktywności fizycznej dla zdrowia oraz rozpoznawania podstawowych wad postawy. Badaniu została poddana grupa 388 rodziców/opiekunów dzieci uczęszczających do 18 szkół podstawowych z terenu wszystkich województw. Badani byli proszeni o wypełnienie ankiety mającej ocenić stan ich wiedzy na temat wad postawy. Pytano także o sposób spędzania wolnego czasu i rodzaj uprawianej przez dzieci aktywności fizycznej. Ankieta miała również ustalić, z jakich źródeł rodzice czerpią wiadomości na temat wad postawy ciała. Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika że 34,53% dzieci uczęszczających do szkół podstawowych ma postawę nieprawidłową. Wiedza rodziców na temat wad postawy ciała jest znikoma. Aż 45% rodziców nie potrafi wymienić żadnej z wad, niecałe 15% potrafi scharakteryzować plecy okrągłe, a jedynie 8% umie podać poprawną definicję skoliozy. Jednocześnie wielu rodziców wyraziło chęć uczestnictwa w prelekcji na temat wad postawy w szkole, w której uczy się ich dziecko. Głównym źródłem informacji na temat profilaktyki wad postawy ciała jest dla rodziców lekarz pediatra (24%) i telewizja (20%). Tylko co czwarty rodzic uzyskał informacje na temat zagrożeń wynikających z pogorszenia jakości postawy ciała od nauczyciela. Niemal 79% rodziców uważa, że ich dzieci wystarczająco aktywnie spędzają czas wolny, chociaż w zorganizowanych formach aktywności fizycznej bierze udział niecałe 24% z nich. Mimo iż coraz więcej mówi się o problemie wad postawy ciała wiedza rodziców na ten temat jest wciąż bardzo mała. Wydaje się, że znaczniejszą rolę w propagowaniu wiedzy dotyczącej zapobieganiu wadom postawy powinni odegrać nauczyciele z racji swojego przygotowania zawodowego i stałego kontaktu z uczniami i ich opiekunami.

Open access

Beata Drzewieniecka and Marzena Nowak

Abstract

Safety in transportation of dangerous goods is an important issue in transport processes. The impact of transport damage on the level of safety is very high and therefore becomes a very important issue in transport. The number of breakdowns in railway transport is becoming more and more advanced with deterioration of wagon condition due to aging. Thanks to the analysis of these data, it was possible to approximate the problem of transport failures and their impact on the safety of people involved in this transport process. In addition, the simulation in ALOHA program has been carried out that allows to illustrate the effects of the hazardous substance release from the transport rail tank. This event may result from derailment of the wagon or breakage of the wagon component. The simulation shows the extent of the threat during the incident. The conducted researches and their analysis have shown the problems of railway transport safety on various levels and different planes.

Open access

Zbigniew Marczyński, Beata Skibska, Sławomira Nowak, Jerzy Jambor and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda

Summary

Introduction: Using the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the mole fraction (x2) of solubility of phytochemicals contained in the dry green tea leaves was calculated which determines the profile of pharmacological activity.

Objective: The applicative purpose of the study was to estimate the actual solubility of phytochemicals – S|real.| [mol/dm3] in water and in water-ethanol solutions of diversified polarity (εM) for their selective extraction and optimal formulation of oral solid dosage form.

Methods: The basic physico-chemical and structural quantities of phytochemicals and corresponding mathematical equations of general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility were used to calculate the actual solubility – S|real.| and the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).

Results: The calculated actual solubility values – S|real.| [mol/dm3] collated with correlation equations enabled the assessment of phytochemical capability for the process of mass exchange on phase boundary. Correlation equations for the dependence log P = f (– log S|real.|) point to the structural preferences of phytochemicals in the kinetics of the mass exchange (diffusion) through the natural phase boundary.

Conclusions: Calculations and correlations between the values characterizing the actual solubility – S|real.|, media polarity (water, ethanol and their solutions) and the partition coefficient (log P) including the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) show that basing on thermodynamic components of the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility, the diffusion profile of phytochemicals contained in the green tea extract (Ext. Camellia sinensis L. aqu. siccum) through the biological phase boundary as well as optimal choice of the extraction medium for selective extraction of the class of phytochemicals can be estimated.

Open access

Barbara Tokarska-Guzik, Beata Węgrzynek, Alina Urbisz, Andrzej Urbisz, Teresa Nowak and Katarzyna Bzdęga

Alien vascular plants in the Silesian Upland of Poland: distribution, patterns, impacts and threats

Symptoms of anthropogenic changes in the flora include processes of extinction in some species and spread in others. These tendencies have increased in magnitude in recent centuries, adversely affecting natural biodiversity on a regional, national and continental scale. The main idea behind the project presented here was to investigate the diversity of the alien vascular flora at the regional scale and to update the list of invasive alien species for the Silesian Upland. The aim of this study is also to provide a synthesis of the knowledge accumulated to date on the conditions for their occurrence, their distribution patterns and the possible threat they might pose. The distribution of particular species at the regional scale was investigated by mapping the species on a 2 km x 2 km grid. The study showed that the list of alien plant species for the Silesian Upland encompasses 338 species, including 125 archaeophytes, 195 kenophytes (=neophytes) and 18 species of an uncertain status in the Polish flora. A threat evaluation was performed for particular species on the basis of the number of localities, the diversity of preferred habitats recorded, and their current (over the last decade) tendency to colonise new localities. As a result, a final list of 101 invasive species has been selected. Among the alien plant species considered to be invasive in the area of the Silesian Upland, 20 species are identified as ‘weeds’ (13 archaeophytes and 7 kenophytes), another 25 (exclusively kenophytes), penetrating into natural habitats, are defined as ‘transformers’

Open access

Wojciech Nowak, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Piotr Brzyski, Jerzy Sałówka, Dagmara Kuliś and Piotr Richter

Adaptation of Quality of Life Module EORTC QLQ-CR29 for Polish Patients with Rectal Cancer - Initial Assessment of Validity and Raeliability

Heath related quality of life has been an important object of interest in the clinical practice, focused on assessment of treatment effects from patient's point of view, with particular emphasis placed on effect of treatment on daily patient functioning. Concept of health-related quality of life needs valid and reliable instruments.

The aim of the study was to present the process of validation of a new version of EORTC QLQ-CR29 module in Polish patients suffering from rectal cancer.

Material and methods. EORTC QLQ-CR29 module comprises 29 questions, and was adapted to Polish cultural conditions based on EORTC procedure. Data collected from 20 patients were analyzed, their agreement with theoretical and empirical structure was assessed. Convergent and discriminant validity were analyzed with multi trait scaling.

Reliability was assessed with Cronbach alpha coefficient. Known group validity was assessed in terms of differences between men and women, and between stoma and non-stoma patients. Exact Mann-Whitney test was used. P values lower than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results. Scales built on bases of empirical model of module had higher validity and reliability than those based on theoretical model.

There were no significant differences between men and women in health-related quality of life. Significantly higher values were observed in non-stoma patients on body image scale and for leakage of stool item. Reversed relationship was observed in case of abdominal and buttocks pain, as well as embarrassment because of bowel movements.

Conclusions. Module CR29 is a valid and reliable tool, which enables standardized measurement of treatment effects, suggested for use as main tool measuring impact of disease itself and applied treatment on health-related quality of life of rectal cancer patients.

Open access

Elżbieta Nowak, Zbigniew Marczyński, Beata Skibska, Michał Jakub Nachajski, Jerzy Jambor and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda

Summary

Introduction: Common ivy (Hedera helix) is a plant used successfully in the treatment of various ailments. This is possible owing to the unique set of substances contained in it such as large amount of saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phytosterols as well as polyacetylenes and coumarins. All these substances have been used in the production of cosmetic and medicinal preparations. Clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of dry ivy leaf extract have shown its high efficacy, comparable to synthetic medications, and better tolerance of herbal drugs.

Objective: Investigations were performed on model ivy leaf (Hedera helix) extracts which were created using a medium of diversified polarity ( εM). Measurements of viscosity and surface activity on phase boundary were performed. During preformulation studies attention was drawn to the possibility of micellar solubilization of cholesterol and selected structures of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – ketoprofen.

Methods: Viscosity measurements of Extractum Hederae helicis e folium aqueous solutions and in 0.1 mol HCl were performed according to the Polish Standard with Ubbelohde dilution viscometer. The surface tension of aqueous solutions -Δγsol25 of Hederae helicis e folium extracts was determined according to the Polish Standard with stalagmometric method. Critical micellar concentration (cmc) was calculated. This enabled to evaluate the dependence ΔGm0=2.303 RT×log cmc of the thermodynamic potential of micelle formation (ΔGm0 ). Results: It has been confirmed in the conducted comparative studies that aqueous solutions of Extr. Hederae helicis e folium created with maltodextrin as well as with SiO2 – maltodextrin result in micellar solubilization. The increase of granulometric size of cholesterol particle to Ø 1.60 mm decreased the amount of solubilized cholesterol but solubility preferences of the extracts were maintained.

Conclusions: Model extracts produced from Hederae helicis e folium with diversified polarity of the extraction medium (water – ethanol) are characterized by appropriate solubility of the components which results not only from the presence of chlorophyll and its derivatives in the extract but also from the technique used for spray drying of the extract.

Open access

Edward Nęcka, Radosław Wujcik, Jarosław Orzechowski, Aleksandra Gruszka, Beata Janik, Michał Nowak and Natalia Wójcik

Abstract

In this paper, we present a new questionnaire for the assessment of self-control as an individual trait. We describe the process of construction of this assessment tool. We also report the results of relevant validation studies. The questionnaire has two independent versions, one based on self-reports (NAS-50) and another one based on other-reports (NAS-40). The first version consists of five subscales (10 items each), called Initiative and Persistence (IP), Proactive Control (PC), Switching and Flexibility (SF), Inhibition and Adjournment (IA), and Goal Maintenance (GM). Seven samples of participants (N = 934 altogether) took part in the validation study. The second version has not been split into subscales. Both versions obtained satisfactory indices of internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach’s alpha (for NAS- 50 total score a = .861, for the subscales a between .726 and .867; for NAS-40 a = .844). The NAS-50 and NAS-40 scores were highly correlated with other measures of self-control, including Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone’s (2004) self-control scale. They also proved to be entirely independent of general intelligence. In conclusion, both versions can be regarded reliable and valid enough, and therefore suitable for the assessment of trait self-control for research purposes.

Open access

Zbigniew Marczyński, Beata Skibska, Sławomira Nowak, Izabela Rychlińska, Jerzy Jambor and Marian Mikołaj Zgoda

Summary

Introduction: Green tea offers not only pleasant, delicate flavor, but also provides health benefits. The extract contains, among others, polyphenols responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They reduce the risk of cancer and their presence exerts preventive activity against cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: Analysis of selected physicochemical and solubilizing properties of pharmacopoeial-true solutions of dry green tea extract.

Methods: The caffeine content was determined in the extract and in dry residue after solubilization by high performance liquid chromatography. The process of micellar solubilization of cholesterol granules and ketoprofen was carried out in model solutions of green tea extract.

Results: The obtained results indicate that the prepared ‘ex tempore’ leaf green tea infusion subjected to short thermal exposure will be characterized by significant solubilization abilities.

Conclusions: The outcomes of the research pointed to the possibility of developing a solid oral dosage form with titrated dry green tea extract of expected pharmacotherapeutic profile.

Open access

Lucyna Natkaniec-Nowak, Magdalena Dumańska-Słowik, Beata Naglik, Viktor Melnychuk, Мariya B. Krynickaya, Wojciech Smoliński, Magdalena Sikorska-Jaworowska, Paweł Stach, Dorota Kubica and Karolina Ładoń

Abstract

Amber-bearing sands from Zdolbuniv mine are Paleogene fine-grained (0.6-0.12 mm) clastic rocks. The material is poorly rounded and moderately sorted out. It mainly consists of quartz, glauconite, and subordinately, feldspars (K-feldspars and plagioclases), mica, carbonates, zircon, epidote,fossil resins (Baltic amber) and ore minerals such as hematite, rutile, anatase, ilmenite. The presence of glauconite in the sands proves that sedimentation basin had to be marine reservoir. The variable composition of individual glauconite grains suggests the environmental conditions had to change during the sedimentation of clastic rocks. The occurrence of minerals, assembly such as zircon, epidote, ilmenite, rutile, anatase in the sands as well as the brown CL color of quartz grains, may suggest that majority of clastic material originated from metamorphic rocks, most probably coming from the Ukrainian Shield. Together with metamorphic material the fragment of fossil resins, i.e. Baltic amber, from the Paleogene off-shore forests could be transported to the sedimentation basin. Nowadays the bottom part of the analyzed profile is the most promising for the recovery of glauconite, whereas the exploration of Baltic amber may be initiated from the top of the profile.

Open access

Wiesława Młodawska, Patrycja Mrowiec, Beata Grabowska, Joanna Waliszewska, Joanna Kochan, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Migdał, Wojciech Niżański, Sylwia Prochowska, Agnieszka Partyka, Marcin Pałys, Teresa Grega and Józef Skotnicki

Abstract

Dermal fibroblasts are commonly used as donors of genetic material for somatic cell nuclear transfer in mammals. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that regulates proliferation and differentiation of different cell types. The study was aimed at optimizing the cell culture protocol for cat dermal fibroblasts by assessing the influence of culture media and different doses of bFGF on proliferation of fibroblasts and their viability in terms of cell banking and somatic cloning of felids. In Experiment I, skin biopsies of domestic cats were cultured in DMEM (D) and/or DMEM/F12 (F), both supplemented with 5 ng bFGF/ml (D-5, F-5, respectively). After the primary culture reached ~80% of confluency, the cells were passaged (3–4 times) and cultured in media with (D-5, F-5) or without (D-0, F-0) bFGF. To determine the optimal doses of bFGF, in Experiment II, secondary fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM with 0 (D-0), 2.5 (D-2.5), 5 (D-5) or 10 (D-10) ng bFGF/ml. The results showed that in D-5 the cells proliferated faster than in D-0, F-5 and F-0. Due to their poor proliferation, passages IV were not performed for cells cultured in F-0. In experiment II, a dose-dependent effect of bFGF on proliferation of cat dermal fibroblasts was found. In D-5 and D-10, the cells exhibited higher (P<0.05) proliferation compared with D-0. In D-2.5 the cells showed a tendency to proliferate slower than in D-5 and D-10 and at the same faster than in D-0. In conclusion. DMEM supplemented with bFGF provides better proliferation of domestic cat dermal fibroblasts culture than DMEM/F12. Supplementation of culture medium with bFGF has a beneficial effect on cat dermal fibroblast proliferation and could be recommended for addition to culture media.