The objective of this study was to determine the basic physical and chemical parameters and the total content of Fe and Ni as well as their proportion in the fractions sequenced with Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure in the selected organic materials used as soil fertilisers: bovine manure and chicken manure from broilers and layers. The highest content of dry matter, organic carbon and total nitrogen was found in the chicken layer manure. All examined materials had a comparable, C:N ratio (10–11:1). The highest amount of iron and nickel was found in the chicken broiler manure, whereas the lowest was in the chicken layer manure. The distribution of tested metals in the fractions sequenced with BCR procedure was differentiated. In the bovine manure and chicken broiler manure, the highest amount of iron was sequenced in the residual fraction, whereas in the chicken layer manure it was in the oxidative fraction. The oxidative fraction constituted the highest proportion in the total nickel content in the bovine manure and chicken layer manure, whereas in the chicken broiler manure it was the reducible fraction.
This study assessed the influence of liming and waste organic materials on the yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata L.) grown on nickel-contaminated soil in the third year of a pot culture experiment. In the experiment, the following factors were taken into consideration: (1) nickel soil contamination (0, 75, 150 and 225 mg Ni·kg−1 of soil); (2) liming (0 Ca and Ca according to 1 Hh of soil) and (3) organic materials (no waste organic materials added, brown coal from a coal mine in Turów and rye straw). Introducing nickel into the soil, regardless of its amount, caused a significant decrease in the total yield of cock’s-foot and increased the nitrogen and potassium contents. Liming caused a significant increase in the yield of cock’s-foot and decrease its potassium content, but it did not clearly differentiate the nitrogen and phosphorus content. The used organic materials (straw and brown coal) caused a decrease in the phosphorus content in the grass biomass.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the accumulation level of copper, zinc and nickel in forest mushrooms – Bay Bolete (Xerocomus badius), Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus), Rough-Stemmed Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera). The analysed mushrooms were obtained from growth forests located in the Masovian Voivodeship in the following counties: Siedlce, Sokołów, Łosice and Łuków. Total content of metals was determined using the method of atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, after the earlier mineralisation of materials ‘by dry combustion’ in a muffle furnace at the temperature of 450°C, and after melting of ash in a 10% solution of HCl. In the soil samples taken from the places where the tested mushrooms occur, pH in 1 mol KCl·dm-3 and total content of copper, zinc and nickel were determined by the ICP-AES method after earlier mineralization in mixture of concentration HCl and HNO3 (3:1) in a microwave system. Test results were statistically analysed with the use of software STATISTICA 12 PL (STATSOFT, TULSA, USA). The analysed mushrooms had diverse content of the determined metals. The highest total average content of copper and zinc was present in Bay Bolete: 34.83 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 155.50 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and the highest average content of nickel was contained in Rough-Stemmed Bolete – 2.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.. The lowest average content of copper and zinc was determined in Rough-Stemmed Bolete: 11.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 91.90 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and lowest total average content of nickel was present in Bay Bolete – 1.05 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.
No excessive accumulation of examined heavy metals was stated in the analysed mushrooms species.
Badano wpływ zanieczyszczenia gleby niklem (0, 75, 150 i 225 mg Ni kg-1 gleby) na tle zróżnicowanego wapnowania (0 Ca i Ca w g 1 Hh) i materiałów organicznych (bez stosowania materiałów organicznych, słoma żytnia i węgiel brunatny z Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego Turów) na zawartość niklu w kupkówce pospolitej i frakcje tego metalu w glebie. Analizowano cztery pokosy kupkówki pospolitej zebrane w trzecim roku doświadczenia wazonowego oraz oznaczono frakcje niklu w glebie pobranej po ostatnim pokosie rośliny testowej. Zawartość niklu w roślinie oraz ogólną zawartość tego pierwiastka w glebie oznaczono metodą ICP-AES po wcześniejszej mineralizacji. Frakcje niklu w glebie oznaczono metodą frakcjonowania sekwencyjnego - BCR. Wprowadzenie do gleby niklu, niezależnie od ilości, spowodowało istotne zwiększenie jego zawartości w biomasie kupkówki pospolitej oraz w glebie we wszystkich frakcjach, przede wszystkim we frakcji wymiennej (F1). Wapnowanie gleby oraz aplikacja materiałów organicznych zmniejszyły zawartość niklu w biomasie kupkówki pospolitej oraz w glebie we frakcji wymiennej, bezpośrednio przyswajalnej przez rośliny, powodując jednocześnie zwiększenie jego udziału we frakcji rezydualnej (wapnowanie) oraz redukowalnej i utlenialnej (aplikacja materiałów organicznych).
Field experiments determined copper and zinc content and accumulation in yellow lupine roots, stems, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds. The test factors included development stages (BBCH 65 and BBCH 90) at which harvest was performed as well as nitrogen doses (0, 30, and 120 kg·ha−1) introduced to the soil prior to sowing. A higher copper content (by an average of 20.9%) and zinc content (by 53.7%) were obtained in the whole mass of lupine harvested at the flowering stage compared to that at the full maturity stage. Yellow lupine fertilised with 120 kg N·ha−1 contained and took up more copper and zinc than both lupine cultivated without nitrogen fertilization and fertilised with 30 kg N·ha−1. The application of different nitrogen doses had no significant effect on the contents of the micronutrients in the seeds of the test plant. The amount of copper and zinc accumulated in the seeds was the largest following the application of 120 kg N·ha−1. Lupine accumulated the largest amounts of both elements in the leaves irrespective of the development stage at which the harvest was carried out. The bioaccumulation factor for copper and zinc was higher in the lupine harvested at the flowering stage than in the lupine harvested at full maturity, but it was not significantly determined by the applied nitrogen fertilization. The values of translocation coefficient for the tested heavy metals, usually higher than 1, indicate significant potential for their accumulation in yellow lupine biomass. Under conditions of an increased zinc content in the soil, lupine green matter harvested at the flowering stage contained an above-standard amount of this heavy metal and could not be used for animal feed.
The influence of fertilization with fresh sewage sludge with the addition of calcium oxide and lignite ash in the proportions dry mass 6:1, 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 on the content of chromium and copper in plants and soil and uptake of these elements was investigated in pot experiment. Sewage sludge were taken from Siedlce (sludge after methane fermentation) and Łuków (sludge stabilized in oxygenic conditions), eastern Poland. The chromium content in the biomass of the test plants (maize, sunflower and oat) was higher following the application of mixtures of sewage sludge with ash than of the mixtures with CaO. The copper content in plants most often did not significantly depend on the type of additives to the sludge. Various amounts of additives to the sewage sludge did not have a significant effect on the contents of either of the studied trace elements in plants. The contents of chromium and copper in soil after 3 years of cultivation of plants were higher than before the experiment, but these amounts were not significantly differentiated depending on the type and the amount of the used additive (i.e. CaO vs. ash) to sewage sludge.