Beata Kozłowska, Jadwiga Mazur, Krzysztof Kozak, Agata Walencik-Łata and Błażej Baic
Radon exhalation from ground is a process dependent on the emanation and migration of radon through ambient air. Most studies on radon exhalation from soil were performed regarding the influence of meteorological and soil parameters. As radon exhalation rate can be affected by the internal properties of the sample, it may also be influenced by the exhalation chamber geometry such as volume-to-area (V/S) ratio or other construction parameters. The measurements of radon exhalation from soil were made using different constructions of accumulation chamber and two types of radon monitors: RAD7 (Durridge) and AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (Genitron). The measurements were performed on one site in two locations and approximately at the same time. The first tests did not show the correlations of exhalation rate values and the chamber’s construction parameters and their geometrical dimensions. However, when examining the results, it seems that there are still too many factors that might have affected the process of radon exhalation. The future experiments are planned to be conducted in controlled laboratory conditions.
Ewelina Mazur, Beata Dobrowolska, Renata Rabiasz and Anna Pilewska-Kozak
Introduction. Well-implemented, holistic care of the dying patient requires appropriate qualifications from the medical personnel.
Aim. The aim of the study was to collect the opinions of nursing and medical students before the end of their professional education on their preparation to provide care to the dying patient.
Material and methods. The survey was carried out in a group of 213 medical and nursing students during their final year of professional education.
Results. Students were unable to clearly express their opinion on their preparation to provide care to patients at the end of their lives (87; 40.8%). Nursing students were more likely to perceive themselves as prepared for such care – 30 (26.7%) than medical students – 11 (10.9%). Statistically significant correlation was observed. A large group of the students (92; 43.2%) had never been present at the scene of a patient’s death during clinical classes. The majority of the respondents chose ‘definitely not’ (59; 27.7%) and ‘rather not’ (53; 24.9%) answers when asked if their university education had prepared them for work with patients at the end of their lives. Students considered their knowledge to be lacking mostly in areas such as coping with their own emotions in the face of a patient’s death (137; 64.3%); communicating with a dying person (119; 55.9%); providing care to the patient’s family (154; 72.3%); cooperating with the patient’s family (125; 58.7%).
Conclusions. Students of both majors are not certain about the level of their preparation to provide care to people at the end of their lives, nor about the extent to which their university education had introduced them to the specificity of care of a dying patient. The medical students were observed to exhibit higher statistical significance as compared to the nursing students. The university curriculum prepared the students to take care of the dying patient’s biological sphere, but did not prepare them to assume a holistic approach to care of the patient and his family.
Ryszard Mazurek, Joanna Beata Kowalska, Paweł Zadrożny, Michał Gąsiorek and Halina Kozak
The aim of this study was to investigate rendzinas diversity on the area of the Ojców National Park (ONP), southern Poland. Moreover, the paper aims to identify the relation between relief and soil cover slope position and its influence on classification as well as the occurrence of lithological discontinuity. The studied soils were classified as brown and chernozemic rendzinas. Rendzinas in the area of the ONP are located mainly in the middle slope position where Upper Jurassic limestones regolith is mixed with loess sediments. This situation leads to vertical heterogeneity of soil texture (and formation of rendzinas with lithological discontinuity) within the soil profile. Surface horizons were mainly characterized by silty texture while in deeper horizons there was a more clay-like texture, which was the result of weathering Jurassic limestones located in deeper parts of soil profile. In turn, uniform shallow rendzinas occurred only on exposed rocks composed of limestones, where loess cover was absent. The character of ONP’s soils is also the result of parent material heterogeneity conditioned by long-term changes e.g. denudation processes and/or weathering. In order to assess soil heterogeneity, ‘lithological discontinuity indices’ as well as ‘uniformity values’ have been applied.
Klaudia Jakubowska, Barbara Kuczek, Anna Wiśniewska, Anna Pilewska-Kozak and Beata Dobrowolska
Introduction. Jehovah’s Witnesses absolutely refuse having blood transfusion performed. The situation is even more difficult when the refusal of blood transfusion concerns a child. Despite existing legal solutions, medical staff experiences value conflicts.
Aim. To analyze the opinions of pediatric nurses about problems that may arise in case of Jehovah’s Witnesses refusal of blood transfusion for their child.
Material and methods. Quantitative research was based on a diagnostic survey method. The variables were measured with the use of a survey questionnaire co-developed by the authors. A group of 104 pediatric nurses from the South-East Poland participated in the study.
Results. To the question “Have you ever encountered the situation throughout all your working career when parents refused their child to undergo a blood treatment due to their beliefs?”, 67.31% (n = 70) of the respondents replied the situation rarely happened. Half of the nurses surveyed (n = 52, 50.02%) admitted they did not accept the position of Jehovah’s Witnesses concerning blood treatment. Most of the nurses surveyed – 87.38% (n = 89) think the existence of procedures on how to proceed in this difficult situation is crucial, and 83% (n = 86) of the respondents admitted that there was no better solution than the already existing legal procedure.
Conclusions. The most difficult experience of pediatric nurses in the situation of Jehovah’s Witnesses refusal of blood transfusion for their child is in the opinion of surveyed nurses, endangering the child’s health or even life. Thus, most of the respondents agree that the best solution in that case is to implement a legal procedure that allows blood transfusion despite parents’ refusal.
Monika Przeniosło-Siwczyńska, Ewelina Patyra, Maja Chyłek-Purchała, Beata Kozak and Krzysztof Kwiatek
The paper describes a microbiological method for the detection of antibacterial substances in feedingstuffs. The method allowed detection of the main antibiotic groups, including tetracyclines. In 2013-2014, a total of 171 feed samples were analysed to determine antibacterial substances. Among the analysed samples 84 (49.1%) were suspected to contain tetracyclines. Out of the 84 feeds analysed using chromatography, 28 (33.3%) contained undeclared tetracyclines, which were identified at concentrations ranging from 0.32 mg kg-1 to 48.98 mg kg-1.
Anna B. Pilewska-Kozak, Beata B. Dobrowolska, Anna Majewska, Grażyna Stadnicka, Agnieszka K. Pawłowska-Muc, Klaudia Pałucka, Agnieszka Bałanda-Bałdyga and Joanna Tkaczuk-Włach
Aim. The study was to assess the level of stress and the health locus of control in parents of hospitalized newborns.
Material and methods. The study covered a group of 150 parents of 126 newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Pathology Ward at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin. The diagnostic survey method was applied with the use of an original questionnaire as well as some standardized tools: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC – version B).
Results. In more than a half of the subjects (54.0%), a high level of stress was observed. Every fourth (26.1%) parent was characterized by an average level of stress and nearly every fifth (19.3%) by a low level of stress. The highest indicator was characterized by the domain of the internal health control locus. Every fifth parent represented an undifferentiated type - weak or magnifying the impact of others (22.0% and 20.0% respectively). The smallest group of parents (5.3%) belonged to the externally-oriented, strong type. Conclusions. The parents of hospitalized newborns are characterized mainly by high and average levels of stress and low level of severity of health control location within each of its domains. The highest indicator of internal locus control and the influence of others are characterized by parents with low and average levels of stress. The dominant type of locus of health control that characterizes parents is the undifferentiated type – weak and magnifying the impact of others.