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  • Author: Beata Konopska x
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Abstract

The work indicated in Polish literature as the cartographic basis for the negotiations of Polish issues at the Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920) is Eugeniusz Romer’s Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland). Given the complicated fate of the atlas, the position of its author in the Polish delegation, and the multidisciplinarity and importance of the conference, it is worth considering whether this atlas really played such an important role, or whether this is merely a statement, a repeated assignment of this role, to stave off concealment or lack of knowledge about other cartographic materials developed and used for the same purpose. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the level of use of cartographic documents other than the Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland in lobbying and official negotiations of Polish issues before and during the Paris Peace Conference. The research task was associated with an extensive archival query, which confirmed the fact that dozens of maps survived, mainly manuscripts, which were prepared before and during the conference. It should be concluded that the maps of E. Romer’s atlas constituted one set of many equally important cartographic documents which were used by the negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference.

Abstract

The adaptations of foreign cartographical works are the constant publishing practices. The subject matters of these studies are the adaptations of foreign geographical atlases, prepared for the Polish users before 1989.

This article attempts to prove the thesis, that the activities of authors and publishers measured by a number and degree of adjustment of the above mentioned adaptations to the needs of the Polish customers in the scope of Polish adaptations of foreign geographical atlases are dependent on the external circumstances, mainly, on the political and socio-economic ones. The aims of these research studies are brought to determine a scope of changes adapting the foreign atlases to the Polish users in the context of the workshop of cartographer and to compare these kinds of publishing activity in the respective periods. The results of these works confirmed the thesis, which was put at the beginning, that the activities of authors and publishers in the field of adaptation depend on the external circumstances. It is clear from the analysis of the examined adaptations, that the greatest activity in this scope is characterised by two periods: the period of partitions of Poland and the next period of activity after the year 1989.

Referring to the kinds of adaptations, which were proposed in the article written by B. Konopska and J. Pasławski (2015), it is necessary to mention, that the main principles of the compilations of adaptations in the earlier periods were just the same as we have today. All the atlases can be divided into the basic adaptations and complex ones. Using the reviews and overviews of the adaptations written at the time, when they were issued, we can also say, that the geographical names were and now are the biggest problems for the authors.

Abstract

The post-1989 transition from a centrally planned economy to a free-market economy generated new investment opportunities in Poland, heavily impacted by computerization. The article analyses the genesis, course and effects of implementation of computerization in a cartographic publishing house which spent several decades operating on a typical Central and Eastern European market. It also highlights the multi-dimensional nature of this process, presenting it in the context of political and socio-economic changes. The author indicates that the factors hindering efficient implementation of computerization were the very qualities which in the past determined the enterprise’s market potential: a great reserve of source and technical materials for publishing maps, efficient technological facilities, experienced employees and the management who sought modernization, but underestimated the potential of computerization and had to deal with its own psychological barriers related to the issue.

Abstract

The authors’ main goal is to highlight the additional research potential of the method of analysing changes in the routes and names of streets introduced by Paweł E. Weszpiński in 2012. The proposed method was based on the old city maps of Warsaw and, according to Weszpiński, described “wandering streets and their names”. Taking the changing routes and names of streets on Lublin city maps from the last century as the research subject, the authors demonstrate that the method can be used to analyse how urban spaces are perceived and how they function in the minds of local residents. The authors propose to modify the method by adding one more important factor – the function of the place or street affected by the “wandering”. They claim that the study of changes in streets’ topography, territorial scope and names should be supplemented each time with an analysis of the administrative, economic or social significance of the place.

Abstract

The article tackles the difficult problem of identity creation of new inhabitants of western and northern Poland after 1945 and of relativism in the understanding of national identity after 1989. One of the manifestations are geographical names, which are reflected on maps. The authors of the article looked at this difficult, historically unprecedented process of integration and identification of new inhabitants with the geographical space through the prism of maps, entering into the contemporary discussion about the transformations taking place in the understanding of national identity.

Abstract

The authors examine the impact of the development of image-based remote sensing systems on the activities of state administrations in the cartographic production and making of geographical information publicly available in the Eastern Bloc countries. A convergence of cartography, secrecy, and power occurred during the Cold War. Through investigation of facts relevant to the acquisition image data of the Earth surface performed by the USA and the USSR, it aims to examine the key questions of why the logic behind the development of cartography in the Eastern Bloc countries after World War II was distorted. The lack of logic was reflected in the fact that the amount of information actually presented on maps decreased with an increase in the information about the surface of the Earth acquired by the means of remote sensing systems.

It was suggested that image data in the member states of the Eastern Bloc, in spite of their restricted use and a drop in the informational value of maps, was the main factor behind the creation, detail, and geometric accuracy of civilian maps. Proving this thesis involved analyzing the correlations between the achievements in the field of remote sensing and the quality of maps developed during the Cold War in the Eastern Bloc states.

Abstract

Different approaches to the adaptation of foreign geographical atlases, making an effort of classification, against a background of the intensive activity of Polish publishers in the scope of adaptation of these atlases during the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty first century have been discussed in this article. Moreover the usefulness and correctness of the adapted publications as well as the fundamental problems connected with the use of Polish geographical names have been discussed from the point of view of a Polish user; also the problems related to the layout, range of content and scope of symbolism expected by a Polish user have been discussed.