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Beata Babczyńska-Sendek

Significance of protection of the meadow and grassland communities for maintenance the floristic diversity in the area of the south-eastern Silesian Upland (Poland)

Variety of relief and geology of the south-eastern Silesian Upland results in richness and diversity of its vegetation. Wet meadows and xerothermic grasslands are one of its most valuable components. In their phytocoenoses many protected (27 in meadows and 22 in grasslands) and rare (25 and 34) species have been noted. Among them there are threatened species put on the "Red list of the vascular plants in Poland". A few species represent the mountain element. Some meadow and grassland phytocoenoses from the south-eastern part of the Silesian Upland are characterised by exceptionally high floristic richness. The Cirsietum rivularis patches have proved to be the richest among them. Large-scale cessation of usage caused that meadows and grasslands actually need urgent active protection here. This is the only chance of survival for many rare protected and threatened plants.

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Beata Babczyńska-Sendek, Agata Kloczkowska and Agnieszka Błońska

Xerothermic grasslands of Pilica surroundings - diversity, threats and directions of changes

Xerothermic grasslands from three stands in the surroundings of the town of Pilica in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland were investigated. It was ascertained that they represent two phytosociological units: Adonido-Brachypodietum (with two variants) and Silene otites-Thymus austriacus community. Moreover, phytocoenoses with a high contribution of xerothermic plants (Thymus-Anthyllis vulneraria community) were found in some places on the abandoned fields. On the basis of the comparison of new data and old phytosociological relevés, only slight changes over 30 years were observed. The differences concerned mostly the coverage of particular species. However, some plants disappeared and other were new (e.g. seedlings of trees and shrubs). Generally, these species were not too frequent and had inconsiderable cover. The changes which occurred manifested themselves also in the differences of mean values of some ecological indicators and in the increase of competitors, as well as clonal species.

Open access

Izabela Skowronek, Beata Babczyńska-sendek and Damian Chmura

An Attempt at Assessment of Alnetum Incanae Lüdi 1921 Transformations in the Skawica River Valley (The Beskid Żywiecki MTS)

The paper presents an attempt at assessment of Alnetum incanae LÜDI 1921 transformations in the Skawica River valley. The field studies were carried out in the whole Skawica valley. On the basis of phytosociological relevés, the participation of species which prefer riparian habitats, the number and cover of anthropophytes, including invasive plants, were analyzed. The presence of synanthropic sites was also taken into consideration. The research demonstrated that in the study area phytocoenoses of the Alnetum incanae association have primarily retained natural character, in spite of a noticeable influence of human impact. The results suggested that the vicinity of synanthropic sites does not eliminate natural components of phytocoenosis.

Open access

Beata Babczyńska-Sendek, Agnieszka Błońska and Izabela Skowronek


Human activity is a factor strongly influencing the current state of vegetation. The abandonment of traditional land use enables uncontrolled secondary succession. Libanotis pyrenaica, a host plant for Orobanche bartlingii, is a great example of species that spread as a result of this process, especially in the area of the Silesian-Cracow Upland. The aim of this study is to show that the expansion of L. pyrenaica caused by changes in land use promotes spreading of O. bartlingii - a species rare in Poland and Europe. During the field research conducted in the last decade, further localities of O. bartlingii were found. The gathered data were summarized to supplement the known distribution of the species and to present floristic and ecological characteristics of the phytocenoses with the participation of L. pyrenaica and O. bartlingii.

Open access

Beata Babczyńska-Sendek, Agnieszka Błońska and Anna Kołtuniak


Paper concerns the flora of excavations from the area of the Twardowice Plateau, one of the regions of the Silesian Upland. These are rather shallow and small pits, which are remnants of exploitation of Triassic limestone and, rarely, iron ore. The studies showed that these excavations are the places where many species of vascular plants occurred. Xerothermic plants, which penetrated from adjacent grasslands, form the largest group (33%) among the 212 noted species. Some of them occurred much more frequently in the excavations than in the grasslands and some were found only in the excavations. It should be emphasized that 8 protected species were present in the investigated objects. Results from the Twardowice Plateau proved that many xerothermic plants could find suitable conditions for growth and survival in limestone excavations.