Bashir Ahmad, Ahmed Alsaedi and Hana Al-Hutami
Muhammad Ahmad Bashir and Christo Wilson
Advertising and Analytics (A&A) companies have started collaborating more closely with one another due to the shift in the online advertising industry towards Real Time Bidding (RTB). One natural way to understand how user tracking data moves through this interconnected advertising ecosystem is by modeling it as a graph. In this paper, we introduce a novel graph representation, called an Inclusion graph, to model the impact of RTB on the diffusion of user tracking data in the advertising ecosystem. Through simulations on the Inclusion graph, we provide upper and lower estimates on the tracking information observed by A&A companies. We find that 52 A&A companies observe at least 91% of an average user’s browsing history under reasonable assumptions about information sharing within RTB auctions. We also evaluate the effectiveness of blocking strategies (e.g., AdBlock Plus), and find that major A&A companies still observe 40–90% of user impressions, depending on the blocking strategy.
Naseer Ahmad Dar, Ashok Kumar Pandit and Bashir Ahmad Ganai
Aquatic macrophytes constitute important components of many freshwater ecosystems. The manifold role of aquatic macrophytes in freshwater habitats is closely linked to their distribution, which in turn depends on a myriad of factors. Foremost, among these are light, water temperature, water quality changes and nutrient enrichment, sediment composition and fluctuations in water levels. Light and temperature are of paramount importance in determining the distribution (with depth, season and latitude), thereby influencing productivity and species composition as well. Sediment compositions markedly affect the growth rates of macrophytes which in turn have a profound influence on the distribution of aquatic macrophytes. Water quality changes and nutrient enrichment can cause considerable variations in the species richness, composition, and density of aquatic vegetation. The reduction in water levels could bring drastic changes in the species composition and distribution of macrophytes. Factors associated with competition, herbivory, land use and land cover changes etc. also play an important role in shaping macrophyte distribution and community structure. In this review we examine both biotic and abiotic factors that influence the structural attributes like species composition, distribution, abundance and diversity of aquatic macrophytes.
Madeeha Riaz, Rehana Zia, Farhat Saleemi, Farooq Bashir, Riaz Ahmad and Tousif Hossain
The mechanical properties of silicate glass-ceramics were evaluated based on the compressive strength tests. It was found that Ta2O5 addition improved densification, refinement of the microstructure and toughening of the bodies. The maximum compressive strength of the bodies with 1 mol% Ta2O5 was increased 3-fold (245.92 ±0.3 MPa) in comparison to undoped glass-ceramics which was measured to be 89.04 ±0.3 MPa, while for 3 mol% it became 4-fold (387.12 ±0.4 MPa) greater. The addition of Ta2O5 stabilized the system by controlling the biodegradation of the glass-ceramics. It effectively depressed the apatite formation as by addition of 3 mol% Ta2O5 no apatite layer was observed. It may be concluded from this study that mechanical and physical properties can be improved by the addition of Ta2O5, but at a cost of bioactivity. Still the optimized composition having Ta2O5 ⩽ 1 mol% may provide appropriate strength of biomaterials for high load bearing applications.
Bashir Ahmad and Sotiris K. Ntouyas
In this paper, we discus the existence of solutions for Riemann- Liouville fractional differential inclusions supplemented with Erdélyi- Kober fractional integral conditions. We apply endpoint theory, Krasnoselskii’s multi-valued fixed point theorem and Wegrzyk's fixed point theorem for generalized contractions. For the illustration of our results, we include examples.
K. Karthikeyan and Bashir Ahmad
We study a boundary value problem of fractional integrodifferential equations involving Caputo's derivative of order α ∈ (n-1,n) in a Banach space. Existence and uniqueness results for the problem are established by means of the Hölder's inequality together with some standard fixed point theorems
Ayesha Manzoor, Touqeer Ahmad, Muhammad Ajmal Bashir, Mirza Muhammad Qadeer Baig, Abdul Ahad Quresh, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah and Ishfaq Ahmed Hafiz
Gladiolus is one of the most important lucrative cut flower crops that is commercially cultivated worldwide due to its various spike forms, size, and shape and color combinations. In order to further increase the commercial and horticultural value by improving the ornamental traits of gladiolus ‘White Prosperity’, polyploidy was induced by soaking gladiolus corms in different colchicine concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) for 24 h. Different colchicine concentrations had a little effect on sprouting and survival percentage but it significantly delayed the emergence of sprouts. About one third decreases in plant height along with reduction in number of leaves per plant, leaf area, length and width, chlorophyll content, diameter and number of cormlets per corm was observed in treated plants. Colchicine at 0.1% concentration improved the ornamental value of gladiolus by increasing vase life whereas colchicine at 0.3% was effective in increasing floret diameter. However, the colchicine treated plants exhibited delayed and reduced percentage of flowering corms. Pollen and stomatal study was done for the identification of polyploidy and it showed that both pollen and stomata size were increased while stomatal density and pollen fertility was significantly reduced in polyploid plants. Induction of polyploidy (mixoploids + octoploids) was achieved in all concentrations, however 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of colchicine were effective for producing large number of polyploid plants. But at 0.1% concentration of colchicine, majority of plants did not show any change in their original ploidy level (tetraploid). These putative polyploids may be helpful for further improvement in ornamental and horticultural value of gladiolus.
(An Empirical Study Based on the Commercial Banking Sector of Pakistan)
Zulfiqar Ali, Zahid Bashir, Muhammad Usman Arshad, Ahmed Ghazali, Muhammad Asif and Fahad Najeeb Khan
This research study aims to investigate the potential inner factors of the lending rate in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, seven bank-specific explanatory variables (capital adequacy, management efficiency, liquidity, asset quality, investment to asset, loan to asset and deposit to asset ratios) were selected to determine their impact on lending behavior. Panel data techniques were emplyed on secondary data collected from the annual financial reports from a sample of ninteen major commercial banks over a period of 2007 to 2014. For the purpose of analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and panel data techniques for regression analysis such as the fixed effect regression models were considered after conforming to the Hausman specification (1978) test. The findings of this study revealed that only four out of seven explanatory variables (ratio of investment to total assets, deposit to asset, loan to asset and liquidity ratio) have a significant relationship with lending rate. Two of the significant determinants (liquidity ratio and investment to asset ratio) are positively correlated while the remaining two significant explanatory variables (loan to asset ratio and deposit to asset ratio) are found negatively correlated with lending rate. The findings of the study are applicable to the banking sector of Pakistan. The current study ignored the use of macro factors like GDP and inflation, etc. which could be used in future research.