Jacek Karamon, Magdalena Larska, Agnieszka Jasik and Bartosz Sell
A 3-year-old female fallow deer was subjected to the necropsy and virological testing, due to a suspected infectious disease in the herd of farmed deer in the Southeastern region of Poland. The animal was found negative for the presence of BVDV, BoHV-1, BTV, and EHDV antibodies and BVDV antigen. The toxicological examination did not reveal any coccidiostats, mycotoxins, rodenticides, carbamate pesticides, and organophosphorus pesticides. The flukes found during postmortem examination were first characterised microscopically as Fascioloides magna and later their identity was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The autopsy revealed lesions characteristic for F. magna infection, including different size cystic spaces in the liver, filled with brownish mucous fluid and flukes, and black pigment covering the surface of parietal and visceral peritoneum with the highest concentrations localised next to the liver. The changes observed in the liver tissue were typical of liver cirrhosis. The results demonstrated that in Poland, where the cervid farming is developing dynamically, the problem of fascioloidosis is present and may probably exert a significantly negative influence on the productivity of such farms if no antiparasitic treatment is performed.
Tomasz Śniegocki, Jan Żmudzki, Andrzej Posyniak and Bartosz Sell
An in-house reference material of chloramphenicol (CAP) in pigs muscle was prepared from the chloramphenicol treated animals. The incurred muscle material was diluted by mixing with blank muscle sample. The concentration of CAP at the level 0.33 μg kg−1 was reached. For the homogeneity study, 10 random samples were analysed and the results were interpreted by Cochran’s test and the sufficient homogeneity test. Additionally, the samples were tested for their stability according to the following scheme: 1, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 d. It was confirmed that an appropriate homogeneity and stability of the produced in-house reference material was obtained.
Katarzyna Pietruszka, Bartosz Sell, Olga Burek and Henryka Wiśniewska-Dmytrow
A multiresidue method for determination and quantification of Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and metabolite of Aspergillus and Penicillium species - ochratoxin A in feeds was described. The method was based on the simultaneous extraction of selected mycotoxins from matrix, followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using a hybrid triple quadrupole - linear ion trap mass spectrometer with the multiple reaction monitoring in both positive- and negative-ion modes. The method was validated in accordance with the Commision Decision 2002/657/EC requirements. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins from spiked feed samples ranged from 74.6% to 113.9%, whereas limit of detection and quantification ranged from 0.72 to 12.4 μg/kg and 1.86 to 31.7 μg/kg, respectively.
Tomasz Śniegocki, Marta Giergiel, Bartosz Sell and Andrzej Posyniak
The major difficulty in analysis of nitrofurans in feed, feed water, and food of animal origin is that nitrofurans have low molecular weights and fast metabolism. The principal goal of this study was to prepare a procedure for the determination of nitrofurans and their metabolites by a single method in different types of feed, feed water, and food of animal origin.
Material and Methods
Two-gram samples were subjected to hydrolysis and derivatisation processes by addition of hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After incubation the sample was purified by solid phase extraction technique. Nitrofurans were analysed using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-MS/MS (UHPLC-MS/MS).
The results of validation fulfil the requirement of the confirmatory criteria according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC regarding apparent recoveries (88.9%–107.3%), repeatability (2.9%–9.4%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (4.4%–10.7%).
The method can be successfully applied to monitor nitrofurans and their metabolites in different matrices.
Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Tomasz Śniegocki, Bartosz Sell, Anna Gajda, Grzegorz Tomczyk and Jan Żmudzki
Introduction: The main problem in poultry farming is the difficulty in producing food of animal origin without using antibacterial agents. Because most antibacterial compounds are dispensed in water, some water supply systems can be contaminated by antibiotics which are then administered to the animals unintentionally. This can lead to unexpected increases in antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the constant exposure of chicken broilers to enrofloxacin affects the withdrawal time of a therapeutic doxycycline that is intentionally administered to the chickens.
Material and Methods: The concentrations of doxycycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were determined by LC-MS/MS in muscles and liver of the chickens.
Results: Doxycycline residue concentrations in the chicken tissues from the group that received trace amounts of enrofloxacin were nearly 50% greater than those of the group that received only doxycycline.
Conclusion: These results indicated that constant exposure to enrofloxacin in trace amounts significantly influences the residual doxycycline concentration in chicken tissues.
Anna Szczotka-Bochniarz, Andrzej Lipowski, Anna Kycko, Bartosz Sell, Michał Ziółkowski and Barbara Małek
Introduction: Aujeszky’s disease (AD), most often related to infection of domestic and feral swine, may also concern other mammals, including dogs. The disease in carnivores, related to consumption of raw meat or offal contaminated with AD virus, is manifested by severe neurological disorders and inevitably leads to animal’s death.
Material and Methods: Karelian bear dog was euthanised due to nervous symptoms that started two days after participation in wild boar hunting. After exclusion of rabies the dog’s carcass was subjected to standard necropsy. Tissue samples were collected for histological examination. Samples of the brain were tested for ADV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Samples of the liver were collected for toxicological examination.
Results: The presence of ADV was confirmed by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Toxicological examination revealed anticoagulant poisoning. This is the first case of Aujeszky’s disease (AD) in a hunting dog in Poland after exposure to ADV from offal of wild boar.
Conclusion: This infection should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of syndromes of neurological disorders in dogs. Since AD is found in both domestic pigs and wild boar in Poland, special care must be taken to prevent spread of infection to other species.