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Open access

Bartosz Molik and Jolanta Marszałek

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Współczesny ruch paraolimpijski (Paralympics) obejmuje swoim działaniem osoby z dysfunkcjami narządu ruchu, porażeniem mózgowym, niewidome i słabowidzące, a także osoby z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną w stopniu lekkim. Do jednych z zagrożeń sportu paraolimpijskiego można zaliczyć urazy sportowe. Uraz jest nieodłącznym elementem sportu pełno- i niepełnosprawnych. Rolą ekspertów jest eliminowanie każdego ryzyka z nim związanego. Celem pracy była charakterystyka urazów występujących w sporcie paraolimpijskim.

Materiał i metody: Dokonano przeglądu literatury polskiej i zagranicznej poświeconej problematyce urazów sportowych w różnych dyscyplinach paraolimpijskich.

Wyniki: Przegląd badań wskazuje na powszechność występowania zjawiska niemalże we wszystkich dyscyplinach paraolimpijskich. Wyniki potwierdzają, że paraolimpijczycy, podobnie jak olimpijczycy, są narażeni na urazy sportowe, aczkolwiek w większości urazy sportowe nie są związane z długotrwałą rekonwalescencją. W sporcie paraolimpijskim dominują drobne urazy, których konsekwencją jest przerwa w treningach nieprzekraczająca 7 dni. Badania potwierdzają tendencję zmniejszania się liczby urazów w dyscyplinach na wózkach, co związane jest najprawdopodobniej ze zmianą przepisów gry oraz postępem technologicznym.

Wnioski: Krytyczne spojrzenie na problem urazów w sporcie niepełnosprawnych potwierdza brak wprowadzania nowych metod badawczych. Większość badań została przeprowadzona w latach 90. XX wieku, a nieliczne publikacje z ostatniego dziesięciolecia zazwyczaj potwierdzają wcześniejsze doniesienia. Konieczne jest również sprecyzowanie metod prewencji i określenie mechanizmów urazów sportowych.

Open access

Bartosz Molik, Andrzej Kosmol and Kestas Skucas

Sprawność fizyczna wszechstronna i specjalna zawodników w piłce siatkowej na siedząco

Celem pracy była ocena sprawności fizycznej wszechstronnej i specjalnej zawodników niepełnosprawnych tre-nujących piłkę siatkową na siedząco. W badaniach wzięło udział 21 zawodników. Badani byli reprezentantami drużyny klubowej z Litwy (n = 7) oraz kadry narodowej Polski (n = 14). Dokonano pomiaru masy i wysokości ciała oraz zasięgu kończyn górnych w pozycji siedzącej. Zastosowano 3 próby testowe sprawności fizycznej specjalnej i wszechstronnej: poruszanie się na odcinku 5 m, podanie piłki siatkowej techniką oburącz sprzed klatki piersiowej na odległość, poruszanie się po kopercie o wymiarach 1,5 × 2,5 m. Wyniki badań potwierdziły możliwość wyko-rzystywania trzech zaproponowanych testów do oceny sprawności fizycznej zawodników niepełnosprawnych. Konieczne wydaje się opracowanie baterii testów sprawności fizycznej specjalnej-technicznej w połączeniu ze zdolnościami koordynacyjnymi oraz oceną skuteczności gry.

Open access

Michał Starczewski and Bartosz Molik

Abstract

Introduction: Paracanoeing is Paralympic discipline in which athletes compete 200m races in three functional classes. The aim of the study was to compare whether anaerobic capacity parameters differ between classes.

Material and methods: A group of 14 athletes from A and LTA classes took part in this study. During the 30s Wingate test the selected anaerobic capacity parameters (peak power, relative peak power, fatigue index, time to reach peak power) were registered.

Results: Results of the present study lead to conclusion that the anaerobic capacity differ between paracanoe functional classes.

Conclusions: There are significant correlation between selected anaerobic capacity parameters and functional classification

Open access

Katarzyna Prokopowicz, Grzegorz Prokopowicz, Bartosz Molik and Ewa Kozdroń

Abstract

Introduction: Health is highly valued by individuals as well as whole social groups. Lifestyle, and related with this health behaviors are believed to be the main factors that largely determine its condition. Poland is a country, where the number of malignant cancer morbidity is systematically increasing. Breast cancer is the most common among women aged 45 years old. Despite the relative stability of the mortality outcomes the rate of it is still high. This situation is influenced by many factors, including the limited awareness of the value of health-related behaviors.

Material and methods: The study included 70 women aged 45-75 years old. The study and control group consisted of: 36 women with breast cancer and 34 women without cancer in history. The specifically developed questionnaire and the Positive Health Behaviors Scale for Women developed by Hildt-Ciupińska were used in this study. IBM SPSS v. 21.0 was used for statistical analysis and non-parametric U-Mann Whitney test.

Results: The study let determine the level of women's health behaviors. The analysis of the results showed that there are much anomalies in health-related behaviors in both studied groups. The lowest point scale values were reported in the "Physical activity" subscale. The highest values were reported in the "Safety behaviors" and "Caring body" subscale. The disappointing results in statements related with the prevention of cancer were the most alarmous.

Conclusions: The introduction of health prevention awareness programs in the group of women over 45 years of age, may contribute to an increase in the frequency of health-promoting behaviors.

Open access

Bartosz Molik, James J Laskin, Andrzej Kosmol, Jolanta Marszałek, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz and Tim Frick

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between anaerobic performance (AnP), applicable field tests, and the functional classification levels in female wheelchair basketball athletes. Methods. Female wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 23; Category A, n = 9; Category B, n = 14) from the Canadian national team were evaluated using field tests and the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test. Measures of peak power output (PP), time to achieve peak power (tPP), mean power output (MP), and a fatigue index (FI) were used to assess AnP. A test battery evaluating seven wheelchair basketball skills was applied. Student’s t test was used to identify differences between the two main functional categories (A and B). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient were calculated to determine the significance of all relationships between the parameters of AnP, the results of the field tests, and the eight functional classification levels of the athletes (1.0-4.5 pts.). Results. In all analyzed parameters, except for the field test measuring shooting skills, the results of AnP were significantly higher for Category B players. Significant relationships were observed between athletes’ classification level and AnP and the field tests except for tPP, the 5 m sprint, and the shooting test. The strongest association was observed for MP and PP, MP and FI, PP and FI (p = 0.001). Conclusions. Strong associations were found between the functional classification level and AnP of the female wheelchair basketball athletes. The strongest correlation was confirmed between MP, PP, and the field test measuring the two-handed chest pass, suggesting that this test can be used to indirectly assess the anaerobic performance of female wheelchair basketball athletes.

Open access

Bartosz Molik, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Andrzej Kosmol, Krzysztof Perkowski, Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Waldemar Skowroński, Miguel Angel Gomez, Krzysztof Koc, Izabela Rutkowska and Robert J Szyman

Abstract

Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level.

Open access

Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Andrzej Kosmol, Magdalena Bogdan, Bartosz Molik, Izabela Rutkowska and Grzegorz Bednarczuk

Game Efficiency of Wheelchair Rugby Athletes at the 2008 Paralympic Games with Regard to Player Classification

Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine game efficiency of elite wheelchair rugby players in consideration of International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) classification during the 2008 Paralympic Games played according to the old wheelchair rugby rules.

Basic procedures. A group of 77 athletes representing 8 national teams participated in the study. Each team played 5 games for 32 min each. Athletes who played for more than 8 min in total at the 2008 Paralympics qualified for the study. The seven IWRF player point classes were collapsed into four groups. The game efficiency analysis was based on the IWRF Statistical Reports. The following six game efficiency parameters were analyzed: played time (T), sum of all points scored (PT), assist passes (AS), assist blocks (AB), turnovers (TO) and steals (ST).

Main findings. The major finding of the study was that most differences in PT, AS, AB, TO and ST were found among all the examined groups (I-IV), except groups I and II. The played time (T) was not sensitive enough to identify significant differences among all the groups. This indicates that played time in the context of substitutions limited by classification point requirements does not reflect the differences between player classes.

Conclusions. Generally, there was a tendency for highpoint class players to perform better. The study findings point to the importance of analysis of game efficiency of elite wheelchair rugby players with regard to their IWRF classification during tournaments played according to the new wheelchair rugby rules.

Open access

Anna Ogonowska-Słodownik, Eliza Maria Bober and Bartosz Molik

Abstract

Introduction: Physical activity is one of the basic elements that affect functional performance and body composition. The age may result in adverse changes in these parameters. The study aimed to compare the functional fitness and body composition in physically active women over 60 years old in different age groups and determine the relationship between those two components.

Material and methods: The study participants attended gymnastic classes at the University of Third Age of Warsaw University of Technology. A total of 39 women were examined in three age categories - 60-64 years (13 women), 65-69 years (13 women), 70-74 years (13 women). The study used the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) to assess functional fitness. Body composition was tested using a device Tanita BC 420.

Results: Statistical analysis showed no statistically significant (p≤0.05) differences in functional fitness and body composition between women of different age groups. A statistically significant negative correlation was found for Back Scratch test with BMI and percentage of body fat and a positive with muscle mass. Additionally, 8-ft up-and-go test positively correlated with BMI and percentage of body fat and negatively with muscle mass.

Conclusions: Regular physical activity allows to maintain the level of functional fitness in older women. Element requiring additional commitment are flexibility exercises. The study confirmed the relationship between body composition and functional fitness of older women.

Open access

Judit Lencse-Mucha, Bartosz Molik, Wojciech Petelicki, Jolanta Marszałek and Kalina Kaźmierska-Kowalewska

Abstract

Introduction: Persons with intellectual disabilities are faced with many obstacles in performing physical activity. The trigger may be coming from genetics, environmental factors (eg. financial), as well as psychological related, inter alia, the level of motivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic performance of the lower limbs of men with intellectual disabilities. Another aim of this study was to compare the anaerobic performance of physically active and inactive men with intellectual disabilities.

Material and methods: The participants of the study were 22 physically active men and 9 physically inactive man with intellectual disability. All participants performed a 30-second Wingate test twice. The following parameters were evaluated the mean power (MP), the relative mean power (rMP), the maximum power (PP), the relative maximum power (rPP) and fatigue index (FI). We compared the results obtained in both tests 30-second to examine the reliability and the values obtained in the test between active and inactive persons .

Results: The results showed significant correlations between all power parameters studied, except for the fatigue index. All parameters of physically active group with intellectual disabilities achieved significantly better results relative then inactive persons.

Conclusions: The reliability of 30-second Wingate test for persons with intellectual disabilities were confirmed. Also confirmed a higher power level inactive men with intellectual disabilities in relation to the untrained men.

Open access

Judit Lencse–Mucha, Bartosz Molik and Krzysztof Perkowski

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Zrozumienie specyfiki funkcjonowania osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną (NI) wydaje się konieczne do lepszego wykonywania przez nie różnorodnych ról społecznych, również działań w obszarze różnych form ruchowych. Nierozwiązany w badaniach naukowych pozostaje problem czy osoby z NI są w ogóle w stanie wykonać wysiłki krótkotrwałe o maksymalnej intensywności. Celem badań była ocena reakcji organizmu osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną na wysiłki krótkotrwałe o maksymalnej intensywności.

Materiał i metody: Uczestnikami badań było 16 osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną -10 mężczyzn oraz 6 kobiet. Badani byli uczestnikami warsztatów terapii zajęciowej, nieuprawiającymi sportu. Wszyscy uczestnicy zostali poddani testowi Wingate dwukrotnie, w odstępie jednego tygodnia. Oceniana była korelacja mocy maksymalnej (PP), relatywnej mocy maksymalnej (rPP), mocy średniej (MP), relatywnej mocy średniej (rMP) oraz współczynnika zmęczenia (FI) między wynikami testów. Dodatkowo porównano wyniki uzyskane w grupie kobiet i mężczyzn w 1 i 2 badaniu, a także w relacji do wcześniej przedstawianych wielkości referencyjnych dla osób pełnosprawnych.

Wyniki: Odnotowano istotne korelacje dla wszystkich badanych parametrów w grupie kobiet a także wyniki MP, rMP i PP w grupie mężczyzn. Nie odnotowano istotnych różnic między wynikami uzyskanymi w pierwszym i drugim badaniu, za wyjątkiem wskaźnika zmęczenia u kobiet.

Wnioski: Badania pilotażowe wskazały, iż 30-sekundowy test Wingate jest rzetelny i może być wykorzystywany w grupie mężczyzn i kobiet z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną.