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Open access

Wojciech Dzięgielewski and Bartosz Gawron

W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki oceny przydatności biokomponentu I generacji pochodzenia roślinnego - estrów metylowych wyższych kwasów tłuszczowych (FAME) - jako komponentu do paliwa stosowanego do zasilania turbinowych silników lotniczych. Przedstawiona analiza dotyczy zarówno badań właściwości fizykochemicznych przygotowanych mieszanek paliwa Jet A-1 z różną ilością dodatku FAME, jak również opiera się na wynikach uzyskanych na stanowiskach silników turbinowych. Wyniki pracy wskazują na praktyczny brak możliwości wykorzystania biokomponentu I generacji typu FAME w lotnictwie. Jednakże uzyskane rezultaty wskazują, że można poszukiwać zastosowania tego typu biokomponentu w silnikach turbinowych w innych dziedzinach niż lotnictwo.

Open access

Wojciech Dzięgielewski and Bartosz Gawron

The study outlines results from the studies on applicability of 1st generation biocomponent, namely long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of vegetable origin, as an ingredient to fuels used to supply turbine aircraft engines. The presented analysis refers to both physical and chemical properties of developed fuel mixtures of Jet A-1 pure kerosene fuel with various amounts of the FAME additive and is based on own results obtained from tests of turbine engines on workbenches. The experiment results indicate that there are virtually no chances to apply the 1st generation biocomponents of the FAME type to aircrafts, however it is possible to seek for application opportunities of such biocomponents to other turbine engines, different from the aviation engineering.

Open access

Jarosław Sarnecki, Bartosz Gawron and Jadwiga Głąb

Abstract

The publication subject is the issue related to the assessment of phenomena occurring during the jet fuel thermal degradation process. The research in this article was carried out on a specialised laboratory station, according to the author’s own methodology. The assessment of the fuel degradation process was conducted on the basis of an analysis of the content of deposits collected on filters with a diameter of 0.8 µm and 3.0 µm. The filters were additionally analysed under a microscope. The results indicate that a degree and intensity of the fuel thermal degradation process are affected by the technology of the tested fuel and the test temperature. The article was prepared on the basis of the results obtained within the framework of the research project No. 2011/01/D/ST8/06567 funded by National Science Centre.

Open access

Jarosław Sarnecki, Bartosz Gawron and Jadwiga Głąb

Abstract

The paper presents issues related to the process of thermal degradation of jet fuel. This process is of a different nature depending on temperature and time, in which the fuel is subjected to thermal action. The standard method for testing the jet fuel thermal stability seems to be insufficient, therefore, the conduct of the research on a dedicated test rig was taken in this paper. The assessment of the fuel degradation process was carried out on the basis of determination of hydroperoxide and acid numbers as signs of the occurred process. The article has been prepared within the research project No. 2011/01/D/ST8/06567 funded by the National Science Centre in Poland.

Open access

Wojciech Dzięgielewski, Bartosz Gawron and Andrzej Kulczycki

Abstract

A worldwide trend to popularise gradually increasing use of biofuels in various applications was a motivation for gaining interest in FAME as a commonly available biocomponent to fuels combusted in turbine engines. These engines are mainly used in aeronautics, but many of them are also used in other, non-aeronautical areas, including marine navigation. Specific conditions in which fuels are combusted in turbine engines used in these applications are the reason why fuel mixtures of kerosene and FAME type should reveal relevant low temperature characteristics. The article presents results of tests of low temperature properties of mixtures of the jet fuel Jet A-1 and methyl esters of higher fatty acids (FAME). The prepared mixtures contained different contents of FAME. The obtained results present changes of: viscosity, cloud point, pour point, crystallising point, and cold filter plugging point, depending on the percentage by volume of FAME. They also prove that the course of changes of low temperature properties of these mixtures is affected by chemical structure of the biocomponent.

Open access

Wojciech Dzięgielewski and Bartosz Gawron

Abstract

The theme of this paper is the issue related to the thermal stability of aviation fuel to turbine jet engine. This paper presents the importance of this parameter in terms of the proper conduct of the combustion process in a jet engine. In paper were presented critical remarks of the standard test method of determining the thermal stability and its modification for the needs of realization of the research work, relying on multiple pass of fuel through the test system, which resulted in a greater selectivity results. In article presented the results of own research, on the effects of technology fuel production and additives put into fuel on change the thermal stability

Open access

Bartosz Gawron and Tomasz Białecki

Abstract

This article presents laboratory test rig with a miniature turbojet engine (MiniJETRig – Miniature Jet Engine Test Rig), that was built in the Air Force Institute of Technology. The test rig has been developed for research and development works aimed at modelling and investigating processes and phenomena occurring in full scale jet engines. In the article construction of a test rig is described, with a brief discussion on the functionality of each of its main components. Additionally examples of measurement results obtained during the realization of the initial tests have been included, presenting the capabilities of the test rig.

Open access

Bartosz Gawron and Urszula Kaźmierczak

Abstract

Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

Open access

Bartosz Gawron and Grażyna Karp

Abstract

The paper covers issues regarding lubricity of petroleum fuels used in piston and turbine engines, containing hydrocarbon biocomponents. Basing on available literature it can be said that the most prospective fuel components are biohydrocarbons. The paper describes effect of biohydrocarbons included in aviation fuel and diesel fuel on lubricity of such blends. The analysis covers two processes for obtaining biohydrocarbons, the HVO and the Fischer-Tropsch process. Due to problems with actual products acquiring, biohydrocarbons models representing chemically the actual ones from specific process. Lubricity testing was carried out according to standard test methods.

Open access

Janusz Terpiłowski, Bartosz Gawron and Grzegorz Woroniak

Abstract

The paper presents the application of similarity theory to investigations of transient heat transfer in materials with complex structure. It describes the theoretical-experimental method for identification and design of the structure of two-component composite walls based on the research of the thermal diffusivity for the composite and its matrix separately. The thermal diffusivity was measured by means of the modified flash method. The method was tested on two samples of double-layer ‘epoxy resin – polyamide’. All the investigated samples had the same diameter of 12 mm and thickness ranging from 1.39–2.60 mm and their equivalent value of thermal diffusivity ranging from (1.21–1.98)×10−7 m2/s. Testing the method and research on carbon/epoxy composites was carried out at temperatures close to room temperature.