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Bartłomiej Stępień

Abstract

A non-classical model of interval estimation based on the kernel density estimator is presented in this paper. This model has been compared with interval estimation algorithms of the classical (parametric) statistics assuming that the standard deviation of the population is either known or unknown. The non-classical model does not have to assume belonging of random sample to a normal distribution. A theoretical basis of the proposed model is presented as well as an example of calculation process which makes possible determining confidence intervals of the expected value of long-term noise indicators Aden and LN. The statistical analysis was carried out for 95% interval widths obtained by using each of these models. The inference of their usefulness was performed on the basis of results of non-parametric statistical tests at significance level α = 0.05. The data used to illustrate the proposed solutions and carry out the analysis were results of continuous monitoring of traffic noise recorded in 2004 in one of the main arteries of Krakow in Poland.

Open access

Wojciech Michał Batko and Bartłomiej Stępień

Abstract

The problem of estimation of the long-term environmental noise hazard indicators and their uncertainty is presented in the present paper. The type A standard uncertainty is defined by the standard deviation of the mean. The rules given in the ISO/IEC Guide 98 are used in the calculations. It is usually determined by means of the classic variance estimators, under the following assumptions: the normality of measurements results, adequate sample size, lack of correlation between elements of the sample and observation equivalence. However, such assumptions in relation to the acoustic measurements are rather questionable. This is the reason why the authors indicated the necessity of implementation of non-classical statistical solutions. An estimation idea of seeking density function of long-term noise indicators distribution by the kernel density estimation, bootstrap method and Bayesian inference have been formulated. These methods do not generate limitations for form and properties of analyzed statistics. The theoretical basis of the proposed methods is presented in this paper as well as an example of calculation process of expected value and variance of long-term noise indicators LDEN and LN. The illustration of indicated solutions and their usefulness analysis were constant due to monitoring results of traffic noise recorded in Cracow, Poland.

Open access

Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stepien, Wojciech Batko, Robert Baranski, Dominik Mleczko, Paweł Pawlik and Jedrzej Blaut

Abstract

The civilisation progress has caused noise to become one of essential pathogenic and life comfort decreasing factors. There are several legal regulations aimed at controlling the noise influence on humans. Assessment of the twenty-four-hour influence of noises in various environments constitutes an essential problem. The answer can be supplied by 24-hour monitoring of the sound pressure. This paper is an attempt to learn the real loading of humans by noises. A personal noise indicator was used in measurements. The human 24-hour activity was divided into cycles allowing to model noise hazards. The collected data, even though they did not signal exceeding of individual standards, in the 24-hour period indicated the essential noise influence. These results indicate the need of investigations to recognise the 24-hour noise load of a human, with taking into account various forms of their activity and the need of rest.