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  • Author: Bartłomiej Kwiatkowski x
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Abstract

Introduction. For years, the influence of place of residence on human health has been the subject of interest of researchers from various scientific disciplines. The basic task in shaping space is to create conditions for proper mental and physical development, the experience of beauty, family life, social and individual life. Biotechnology, psychology and sociology, taking into account technical and aesthetic requirements, are the main design criteria for residential buildings.The omission of the most important assumptions in the design of multi-family housing might be very harmful for residents and can be expressed, for example, in poor mood, reduced work efficiency, depression, an increase in the incidence of diseases and even an increase in mortality. Deepening knowledge about proper living conditions is very important in the pro-health aspect.

Aim. An attempt to answer the question to what extent human development and life are subordinated to staying in specific rooms, dwellings, housing estate, district, and finally the city and the entire metropolitan foundation.

Material and methods. This study is for demonstrative purposes based on a review of publications on the quality of life of residents of urban multi-family housing in the aspect of urban planning and architecture.

Results. The correct insolation of residential premises, shapeof the block, the color and texture of the facade, the location and selection of greenery, lawns, paved surfaces and the layout of buildings are just some of the factors affecting the health of residents. Proper design, construction and operation reduce the presence of bacteria and mold fungi, which directly translates into microbiological health risks.

Conclusions. For the proper existence of city dwellers, it is necessary to maximize the use of sunlight and to educate in the proper use of rooms. Raising health conditions, through both proper insolation and the location of flats, “urban interiors”, areas between residential buildings, thoroughfares, playgrounds, sports fields, recreational and recreational areas, directly translates into human health.

Abstract

The term forest fire risk means the existence of such conditions that would make possible the occurrence of a fire in the forest environment. The base for the effectiveness of a forest fire protection system is the evaluation of the forest fire risk followed by adequate organization of the system. This article presents methods for determination of the forest susceptibility to fire known as potential forest fire risk. The below presented methods were developed by Forest Research Institute as the results of the projects commissioned by the General Directorate of State Forests. The forest fire risk category and stand flammability classes are the methods included here. The forest fire risk category was elaborated already in 1975 for the first time. Until today, after the last modification in 2008, it is the fundamental document for the polish forest fire protection system. The purpose of this modification was to increase the determination accuracy of the fire risk category of all polish forest, regardless of its ownership type and at the different administrative level. The categorization method, however, doesn’t reflect the fire risk in micro scale. The attempt to solve that problem was made in 2018 while developing the methodology of stand flammability classes. It was assumed that ground cover fuel models will be developed for the most flammable forest habitat types including ground cover types, dominant species, age class and geographical localisation.

Abstract

The weather conditions determine the dynamic forest fire risk. In Poland, the dynamic forest fire risk is calculated using a method elaborated at the Forest Research Institute. The forest fire risk degree (4-level scale) is calculated every day at 9:00 am and at 1:00 pm during the fire season (1.03 till 30.09) for 60 prognostic zones selected on the basis of stand and climatic conditions. 97% of all annual forest fires occur during the fire season. Surface fires are a significant part of the fires (90%) and occur in forest stands where pine is the dominant species. The purpose of the research was to prepare a new method of forecasting forest fire risk, which would enable a more precise method of evaluation of the risk of an outbreak of fire in relation to the existing and forecast meteorological conditions in forests. The results obtained during testing of this method indicate a high accuracy in forecasting fire risk and a satisfactory precision of formulae for calculating moisture content of pine litter.

The assumptions of the new method included:

  1. possibility of determining the actual risk of fire for the given area, being the average for all measurement points located on the terrain equally those in which the moisture content measurement of litter has not been performed,
  2. possibility of forecasting the risk of forest fire for the afternoon in the morning hours of the given day,
  3. possibility of forecasting fire risk for the following day,
  4. forecasting moisture content of litter for the afternoon and of the given day and for the following day,
  5. drawing up a method enabling limitation of operational costs of fire prevention system.