The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by “Torf Corporation” company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.
The aim of this work was to determine the intensity of nitrogen mineralization in forestry drained ombrotrophic peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park, SW Poland. Additionally discussion about the shallow organic soils classification according to Polish Soil Classification (2011) is presented. For the study three research transects were established on forestry drained ombrotrophic peatlands in the Stołowe Mountains. Each of the transect consisted of four (site A and B) or five (site C) sampling plots. Sampling was conducted in the year 2012. The soil samples for the basic soil properties analysis were sampled in April, whereas undisturbed soil samples were collected in stainless steel rings (100 cm3) every 10 cm in April (spring), July (summer) and October (autumn) to show the seasonal dynamics of nitrogen mineralization. Statistical analysis showed that the content of N-NH4 was mainly determined by actual soil moisture and precipitation rate, whereas the content of N-NO3 was positively correlated with air temperature. Among investigated peatlands the highest concentrations of mineral nitrogen forms was observed in the Długie Mokradło bog, situated on the Skalniak Plateau-summit. Additionally, the results obtained showed that implementation of new subtype: shallow fibric peat soils (in Polish: gleby torfowe fibrowe płytkie) within the type of peat soils (in polish: gleby torfowe) should be considered during developing of the next update of Polish Soil Classification.
Despite a large number of organic soil types and subtypes in the Polish Soil Classification the problems of organic soils classification are still very common. In relation to mountain organic soils, in particular. The aim of this paper is to discuss the most common problems related to mountain organic soils classification according to the Polish Soil Classification. Based on authors’ own research and literature studies mentioned problem was described. This work allows to define some new proposals, which should be considered during developing of the next update of the Polish Soil Classification (PSC). The most important proposals related to: criteria for organic materials and organic soils, taxonomy position and criteria for shallow organic soils and new definition of mineral material admixture in organic soils.
The paper aims to assess the land use changes and the dynamics of the landscape pattern of the Grójec Valley in the scope of diverse anthropogenic impacts. The study site is located in the border of the Koło Basin and Kujawy Lakeland, Central Poland. This area was originally covered with wetlands. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been influenced by intensive agricultural use, peat extraction and open-pit mining. The research is based on cartographic materials from 1941, 1981 and 2012. The most relevant finding was that in the first study period (1941–1981) the most common changes in land use (transformation of wetlands into grasslands with shrubs) took place. These were caused mainly by a change in hydrological conditions due to drainage for agricultural use (meadows and pastures) and peat extraction. The study confirmed that these land use changes significantly influenced the landscape structure in each of the analysed parameters (patch density and size, edge, shape and diversity metrics).
The aim of work was to characterize the water retention in the silt-textured Luvisols with lamellic illuvial horizon (argic) that occur in the loess covered northern part of the Silesian Lowland. Soil pits were localized on the Trzebnica Hills near the villages: Machnice (profile 1), Skarszyn (profile 2) and Zaprężyn (profile 3 and 4). Profiles Machnice 1 and Skarszyn 2 were situated in the upper parts of the hills covered with beech stands with an admixture of oak, linden and maple. Profiles Zaprężyn 3 and 4 were situated in the central and lower parts of the arable slope. During the field work conducted in April 2011, 29 soil samples were collected for texture, bulk density and water properties analysis. The soils under study were characterized by texture of silt loam with lower clay content in humus horizons (.loamy silt. according to Polish classification), and higher clay content (.clayey silt.) in the illuvial and subsoil horizons. The texture of all examined profiles was dominated by the „loess“ fractions. Variable abundance of the massive lamellae causes variations in water properties of the illuvial (sub-)horizons. It was found that lamellic illuvial horizons in the loess-derived Luvisols have higher field water capacity than the homogenous illuvial horizons, apart of the clay content. There was no apparent effect of the horizon kind (homogeneous versus lamellic) on the soil bulk density. These properties mainly depended on the total clay content in a particular horizon (sub-horizon).
Soil texture, bulk and specific density, total porosity, and the water capacity at pF 0.2.7 were measured in Albeluvisols with more or less pronounced lithological discontinuity. The soil pits were located in the north-eastern part of the Silesian Lowland, on the glacial plain built of till blanketed with cover materials of various origin, mainly sands. Distinct albeluvic tongues with sandy texture and strong stagnic color mosaic at the contact of eluvial and illuvial horizons were identified in all profiles under study. The lowest bulk density was measured in the plough layers, while the highest in subsoil EBw horizons or glossic E/Bt horizons. Total porosity was the largest in plough layers, rapidly decreased in subsoil E horizons and then back increased with depth. Water capacity (at each measured pF value) was strongly correlated mainly with clay content and rapidly raised in E/B horizons. The highest field water capacity was measured in E/Bt horizons at low albeluvic tonguing intensity, or in deeper parts of Bt horizon at larger intensity of albeluvic tonguing into the illuvial horizon. The easily available water stock in the upper 100 cm-thick column of Albeluvisols with lithological discontinuity depends mainly on the depth of transition of eluvial (coarser) and illuvial (finer-textured) zones, similarly to typical Luvisols with the same type of textural (lithological) variability in the soil profile.
In studies of organic soil degradation and transformation, alongside the conventional methods used in soil science, an increase in the importance of advanced statistical methods can be observed. In this study some multivariate statistical methods were applied in an investigation of organic soil transformation in the central Sudetes. Andrews curves, linear and kernel discriminant variable analysis and cluster analysis were used. The similarities among peatland soils and their layers were determined. It can be stated that the application of statistical methods in soil science research related to organic soil transformation is a valuable tool. The use of various statistical methods (such as Andrews curves, linear and kernel discriminant variables and cluster analysis) can with high probability confirm earlier laboratory or field observations. This is particularly justified in the case of organic soils derived from varied geobotanical peat materials, different types of peatlands and water supply types, which impact the primary properties of the soil.
Understanding the effect of long-term drainage of peatland areas is helpful in future peatland management and regulations of water conditions. The aim of this work was to assess the current state of fen peatland soils in the Grójecka Valley (eastern part of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, central Poland), affected by long-term agricultural use (pastures, meadows) since the 1960s and potentially by lignite open pit mining industry (KWB Konin) since 1980s. Field studies were carried out in 2015 in selected fen peatland areas. Soil material for laboratory analysis was collected from genetic horizons from four soil profiles. The surface horizons of studied organic and organo-mineral soils were built with well-developed moorsh material. They were classified as medium moorshiefied – MtII (profile 1, 3 and 4) and strongly moorshiefied – MtIII (profile 2). Obtained results of physical and physico-chemical analysis indicate that long-term peatland utilization connected with potential impact of the lignite mining, transformed mainly the upper horizons of studied organic and organo-mineral soils. However, despite obvious strong human impact on peatlands ecosystems, we cannot exclude the climate variables, what should be confirmed by long-term monitoring program. Furthermore, presented paper indicated that new subtype moorsh-muddy soils (in Polish: gleby murszowo-mułowe) within the type of gleyic soils should be implemented in the next version of Polish Soil Classification.